PROJECT IN MANAGEMENT.docx - f you need something nowadays...

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f you need something nowadays, typically it's pretty easy to get. You simply hop in the car, hit up Target or Wal-Mart , and in a little while you have what you need. You don't really need to think about how it's made -- unless you're a big fan of "Top Gear" on the channels, that is. I The assembly line has long been considered one of the greatest innovations of the 20th century. It has shaped the industrial world so strongly that businesses that did not adopt the practice soon became extinct, and it was one of the key factors that helped integrate the automobile into American society. An assembly line is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive assembly ) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced. By mechanically moving the parts to the assembly work and moving the semi-finished assembly from work station to work station, a finished product can be assembled faster and with less labor than by having workers carry parts to a stationary piece for assembly. While all assembly lines are interesting, in this report we're going to explore automotive production lines. You'll learn the basic principles behind an automotive production line and the web of jobs that are tied to them. We'll also explore how the American economy changed as people moved from farm or craftwork to production line work. And later, you'll read about the most recent innovations in automotive production, including companies that mass produce cars without using traditional production lines, and even a few car companies that still hand-build cars. n this day in 1913, Henry Ford installs the first moving assembly line for the mass production of an entire automobile. His innovation reduced the time it took to build a car from more than 12 hours to two hours and 30 minutes. O Ford’s Model T , introduced in 1908, was simple, sturdy and relatively inexpensive–but not inexpensive enough for Ford, who was determined to build “motor car[s] for the great multitude.” (“When I’m through,” he said, “about everybody will have one.”) In order to lower the price of his cars, Ford figured, he would just have to find a way to build them more efficiently. Ford had been trying to increase his factories’ productivity for years. The workers who built his Model N cars (the Model T’s predecessor) arranged the parts in a row on the floor, put the under-construction auto on skids and dragged it down the line as they worked. Later, the streamlining process grew more sophisticated. Ford broke the Model T’s assembly into 84 discrete steps, for example, and trained each of his workers to do just one. He also hired motion- study expert Frederick Taylor to make those jobs even more
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efficient. Meanwhile, he built machines that could stamp out parts automatically (and much more quickly than even the fastest human worker could).
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