Sociology_Test One Material

Sociology_Test One Material - Sociology TEST ONE MONDAY...

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Sociology TEST ONE: MONDAY, FEBRUARY 11 th I. What is Sociology? a. Examples of Sociological Interest i. Socialization: How do we learn to be human? 1. Intense during infancy (brain like sponge) 2. Parents, culture around us ii. Deviance: Why don’t we follow the rules? 1. Sharing-have to learn how 2. Sam Hose (black man) a. Accused of murder in Coweta b. Mutilated-burned, cut up and sold c. Participants and spectators i. Don’t see as human ii. Piercing and tattoos 1. Deviance? iii. Collective Behavior: Why do we act differently in a crowd? iv. Inequalities: Why do some groups have more than others? 1. Longevity of life 2. Aspirations, income 3. Pass onto children-social class I. What is culture? a. Language, Norms, Beliefs, Knowledge, Symbols, or physical objects that compose a way of life. II. Kinds of culture: a. Material Culture i. Consists of objects created in a given society 1. Buildings, art, tools, toys, other tangible things. b. Non-material Culture i. Includes Norms, laws, customs, ideas, and beliefs of a group of people. Less tangible but has a strong presence in social behavior. ii. Values-goodness/badness of something iii. Norms-rules of behavior (specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation) involving use of personal space; manners. 1. Enforceability 2. Range of acceptance 3. Salience a. Folkways (general standards of behavior adhered to by a group)(defines culture i.e. food habits and cultural forms of dress), Mores (Strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior) (Religious doctrines; formal law, what’s acceptable and what’s not), Taboos (behaviors that bring the most serious
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sanctions such as incest… i.e. the strictest norms) (things that are forbidden) b. Laws (the written set of guidelines that define right and wrong in a society) iv. Language 1. A set of symbols and rules that, put together in a meaningful way, provides a complex communication system. English, Spanish, hieroglyphics 2. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis-limits reality-we don’t see things that we don’t have words for. v. Knowledge 1. How we define reality vi. Symbols 1. Cross-symbol for a set of beliefs 2. Are symbols meaningful? III. Cultural Integration and Diversity a. Cultural Assimilation b. Cultural Diversity i. Sub-cultures 1. Countercultures are subcultures created as a reaction against the values of the dominant culture. a. Oppositional cultures c. Cultural Views: From ethnocentrism to cultural relativism i. Ethnocentrism 1. There is one absolute standard by which to judge values and behavior and that standard is that of my own society a. We all tend to view the world through our own eyes. b. The habit of seeing things only from the point of view of one’s own group. ii.
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Sociology_Test One Material - Sociology TEST ONE MONDAY...

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