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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 401: Review Questions For Midterm Exam (Review Session: Oct. 9; Exam: Oct. 11) A. On Development (Gottlieb, 1983) 1. Provide a definition of the term "epigenesis" and contrast it with the term "preformation." Epigenesis : Increase in novelty and complexity of organization through differentiation and functional integration in context. development proceeds through the growth of preformed parts 2. What evidence did the embryologist von Baer (1828) provide to give definite proof that development is best described as an epigenetic process? Principles of embryonic development: From simple to complex; simpler structures appear first From less differentiated to more differentiated Development generates a hierarchy of systems: cells, tissues, organs, cognitive, and behavioral systems. 3. What was the experiment conducted by Gottlieb (1976) regarding the capacity of the mallard duckling to recognize at birth its own species-specific "maternal assembly call" meant to demonstrate and how did it demonstrate it? He prevented mallard chicks from being able to hear their own voice 3 days before hatching. It demonstrated that maternal assembly calls were not instinctual but learned. 4. What does Gottlieb (1983) mean by the expression "bidirectionality between structure and function"? The structure develops in a way to allow a function; however, that function or experience can further or help further the development of the structure in either an inductive, or facilitative manner. 5. Define and contrast the three roles that "experience" may play in development according to Gottlieb (1983). Maintenance, facilitation, and induction Maintenance is the preservation of an already developed state or endpoint. Facilitation is the effect of experience on the development of behavior it helps to reach/develop a behavior and or endpoint. Induction is when the absence or presence of an experience completely determines whether or not a behavior will manifest itself later on in development 6. What does the expression "development creates a hierarchy of nested systems" mean? Show that this statement implies that endogenous stimulation is as important for development as is exogenous stimulation. Development moves from simple to more complex, cells, tissues, organs etc. As this happens each system becomes more differentiated. Stimulation generated within these levels of development (endogenous) is as important as exogenous factors like proper temperatures or proper nutrition or mother. We see this in Gotliebs experiment with the mallard duck. 7. Explain and contrast the two conceptions of development that Gottlieb calls "predetermined" and "probabilistic" epigenesis....
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course PSYC 401 taught by Professor Garipey during the Spring '08 term at UNC.
- Spring '08