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Unformatted text preview: The Self
How we come to understand ourselves Self Outline What is the self? "Know Thyself" Functions of the self Cultural Differences Introspection Observing Ourselves Social Comparison Selfpresentation Selfhandicapping Selfmonitoring Impression Management Social Identity Theory Class Exercise What is the self? William James (1890) The "Me" (selfconcept) The "I" (selfawareness) When do we develop a sense of self? 2 years old. Develops throughout adulthood Gordon Gallup's Rouge Test Class Exercise Functions of the Self
1. Organizational function Selfreference effect Selfschema 1. Emotional function Helps us determine our emotional responses 1. Executive function Selfregulation Cultural Differences Independent Self
Self Others Interdependent Self
Self Others "I enjoy being unique and different from others in many respects." "My happiness depends on the happiness of those around me." "Know Thyself"
Introspection Observing Ourselves Comparing Ourselves to Others Introspection Introspection the process of looking inward and examining one's own thoughts, feelings, and motives People do not rely on this as much as we expect, and even when they do introspect, they may not recognize why they feel or act the way they do. Frequency of SelfRelated Thoughts Csikzentmihalyi & Figurski, 1992 Introspecting About Reasons How do you know why you like something? Being analytical about your preferences can actually reduce your liking for something Introspecting About Reasons Introspecting About Reasons
Wilson et al., 1993 IVs: List 5 reasons for poster choice vs. don't list Poster choice Liking for choice Liking at followup DVs:
1. 2. 3. Introspecting About Reasons
Percent Choosing Humorous Poster
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Satisfaction with Poster Choice at FollowUp
0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 N o Reasons Reasons 0.2 N o Reasons Reasons Nisbett & Wilson, 1977 Telling More Than We Can Know 4 identical pairs of nylon stockings Ps asked to choose a stocking and state why Stockings on right preferred by a factor of 4:1 No participant ever mentioned position of stocking as influencing their choice. When asked directly by the experimenter, all Ps denied that position affected their choice! Observing Ourselves
Selfperception theory Overjustification effect Misattribution of Arousal SelfPerception Theory (Bem, 1972) When we are uncertain of our attitudes or feelings, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
1. 2. 3. We watch our behavior We generate explanations We infer internal feelings, attitudes, etc. Attributions play a key role. Overjustification Effect Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic rewards decrease intrinsic motivation! When we are extrinsically rewarded for engaging in activity, we assume that we are doing the behavior because of the reward. Example Misattribution of Arousal Physiological arousal tells us that an emotion is being experienced, requiring an explanation. Selfperception can cause us to attribute our arousal to the wrong source and experience mistaken or exaggerated emotions. Schacter and Singer (1962) Ps injected with epinephrine or placebo told true side effects: rapid breathing, increased BP told wrong side effects: dizziness, headache Confederate either acted euphoric (threw paper airplanes) or angry (ripping up paper) Misinformed Ps searched for an explanation of their state (acted like confederate) Informed Ps already had an explanation (acted calm) Dutton & Aron (1974) Dutton & Aron (1974) Social Comparison Social Comparison We learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to others
1. 2. Upward social comparison Downward social comparison When our goal is to find out info about ourselves: we use upward social comparison When our goal is to feel good about ourselves: we use downward social comparison. Impression Management
All the world's a stage Impression Management Impression Management Creating a certain impression that fits your goals Selfpresentation How we convey who we are Words, Nonverbal behavior, Behavior SelfPresentation Most of the time we want to make ourselves look good Selfpromotion: flattering me Ingratiation: flattering you 1. 2. SelfHandicapping Selfhandicapping when we engage in actions that produce obstacles to success so we have an excuse when we fail E.g., staying up all night before a test (not lack of intelligence) Behavioral Selfreported Types of selfhandicapping 1. I find it hard to imitate the behavior of other people F 2. At parties and social gatherings, I do not attempt to do or say things that others will like. F 3. I can argue only for ideas that I already believe. F 4. I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information. T 5. I guess I put on a show to impress or entertain others. F 6. I would probably make a good actor. T 7. In a group of people I am rarely the center of attention. F 8. In different situations and with different people I often act like very different persons. T 9. I am not particularly good at making other people like me. F 10. I am not always the person I appear to be. T 11. I would not change my opinions (or the way I do things) in order to please others and win the 12. I have considered being an entertainer. T 13. I have never been good at games like charades or at improvisational acting. F 14. I have trouble changing my behavior to suit different people and different situations. F 15. At a party I let others keep the stories and jokes going. F 16. I feel a bit awkward in company and do not show up quite as well as I should. F 17. I can look anyone in the eye and tell a lie with a straight face (if it is for a good cause). T 18. I may deceive people by being friendly when I really dislike them. F SelfMonitoring Snyder's SelfMonitoring Scale the degree one regulates their behavior to match the situation http://pubpages.unh.edu/~ckb/SELFMON2.html High SM "social chameleons" use public self speak in third person Higher public self consciousness Low SM consistent across situations use private self more first person speech Higher private self consciousness Social Identity Theory Social Identity Theory Part of selfconcept is derived from being a part of a social group Individuals identify with social groups to enhance selfesteem 3 assumptions:
1. 2. 3. Categorization Selfesteem Ingroup evaluations Social Identity Theory Optimal Distinctiveness Theory Brewer (1991): On Being the Same and Different at the Same Time Social identity comes from a tension between the needs for inclusion and uniqueness ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course PSYC 260 taught by Professor Traceycallison during the Spring '08 term at UNC.
- Spring '08
- Social Psychology