History1A Midterm. docx - UCLA History 1A Midterm exam...

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UCLA History 1A Midterm exam study guide:Ziggurat: a temple in the form of a pyramidal tower, usually several stories high, and of Sumerian (Mesopotamian) origin. Ancient Mesopotamians considered these temples literal houses of the gods. They would bring offerings to the ziggurats and inside would usually be a statue of the god to which the temple was dedicated. Utnapishtim: Mesopotamian Noah. From the Sumerian Flood Myth, wherein the godsin council decided to wipe out humanity with a huge flood. Ea, god of wisdom, warned Utnapishtim of the gods’ plan and told him how to fashion a large boat in which his family and the seed of every living creature might escape. When the water receded, the gods regretted their decision and agreed never to attempt to destroy humankind again. Utnapishtim rewarded with eternal life. Gilgamesh: 2700 BC from the epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh is the first tragic hero in literary history. He is said to be 2/3 god and 1/3 man, extraordinarily strong, handsome, and wise. Starts out as a tyrant, but as the story progresses, he becomes a better ruler. Enkidu: Character from the Epic of Gilgamesh. Enkidu is made by the gods as Gilgamesh’s equal, to keep the selfish and powerful ruler of Uruk in check. Enkidu is a wild man, he lives with the animals and in many ways is one of them, until a prostitute is sent to “tame him”. Now civilized, Enkidu goes to Uruk to challenge Gilgamesh, but the two become close friends and go off on many adventures together. His death makes Gilgamesh ponder and fear his own mortality. Sargon: 2340-2284 BC. Conquered Mesopotamia. Said to have been set adrift on the Euphrates in a wicker basket by his mother, supposedly a temple priestess who could not keep the child or reveal her pregnancy. Rescued by a palace servant and taken in as his own, Sargon rose in stature in court to become the king’s cupbearer. Went on to conquer all of Mesopotamia.
Hammurabi: 1792-1750 6th of eleven kings in the Old Babylonian Dynasty. Known for the “Code of Hammurabi” the first recorded code of laws in human history. Fertile Crescent: fertile, arable region shaped roughly like a crescent, situated between the Arabian desert to the south and the mountains of the Armenian highlands to the north. Extends from Babylonia and Elam to Assyria, continues westward to the meditteranean Ishtar: Mesopotamian goddess of love, beauty, fertility, war, combat,Narmer-Menes: Unified Egypt around 3100BC . First king of a unified Egypt. In the Narmer palette, Amon Ra: god of the sun and chief deity of the Egyptian Empire. Combination of the Maat : life order/ justice. Antithesis of lawlessness, impiety, chaos. Harmony achieved through justice and right living. Integral component of the functions and duties of the pharaoh. If pharaoh ruled in accordance of Ma’at, there was prosperity for Egypt. This concept/ideology was particularly prominent during the Middle Kingdom (2040-1785), and underpinned the rules of the kings of this time period.

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