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Unformatted text preview: Social Influence
Informational Social Influence Normative Social Influence Obedience Social Influence The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of others have on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Social Influence
1. changing one's behavior due to the real or imagined presence of others. changing one's behavior in response to a direct request. Conformity 2. Compliance People ask you have option 1. Obedience (no option percieved) changing one's behavior in response to a order from an authority figure. Why do we allow ourselves to be influenced?
3 Basic Reasons
1. Behave effectively 1. Build and maintain relationships 1. Manage selfconcept normative social influence Social Influence
2 types 1. Informational social influence Need for accuracy 1. Normative social influence Need for selfesteem Informational Social Influence
The need to be right Informational Social Influence How does informational social influence work? Believe others can interpret an ambiguous situation better than us Believe others can help us choose an appropriate course of action Sherif video Sherif, 1936 Ambiguous situation Autokinetic effect Phase 1: Ps are alone estimates variable (12 inches to 10 inches) Phase 2: (23 days later): Ps put in groups of 3 estimates converge Sherif, 1936
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Alone 1 Trials 2 3 Estimate of movement (inches) Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 When will people conform to informational social influence?
1. The situation is ambiguous Most ceutial variable when determining how o act. 1. The situation is a crisis Due to kimited reaction timr
1. Other people are experts Resisting Informational Social Influence
1. 1. 1. Are others more informed than you? Seek out own information. Understanding how informational social influence works can help you resist. Normative Social Influence
the need to be liked and accepted Social Norms Rules for social behavior Social norms include: General societal expectations Expectations of valued others Our own expectations Standards developed out of observations of others Social Norms Norms exert greatest influence when: Conditions are uncertain Source is similar Concerned about relationship with source The most salient norm will have the greatest impact on behavior. Normative Social Influence Asch's line studies (1951, 1956) How will people react in an unambiguous situation, where the group is clearly wrong? Asch line study video Asch, 1956 Standard 1 2 3 Actual Participant When will people conform to normative social influence? Unanimity Group is important Collectivist culture Group Size Resisting Normative Social Influence
1. 1. 1. Be aware it is operating. Have an ally. Conforming most of the time gives you the right to deviate occasionally (idiosyncrasy credits). Informational Social Influence Normative Social Influence Private Acceptance (Sherif) Public Compliance (Asch) Obedience Obedience History WWII and Nazis Early theories focused on personality traits (e.g. authoritarian personality) Early theories not good Obedience Milgram (1963, 1974, 1976) teacher & learner (confederate) teacher gives learner electric shock for each mistake (increasing voltage) "The experiment must go on." Milgram video Why do we obey? Normative social influence It's difficult to say "No" Informational social influence: Authorities perceived to be experts Conditions to Increase/Decrease Obedience
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
No Com m unicat ion I nt ercom Sam e Room Touch Peer Shocks Ot hers Go On Ot hers Quit Social Influence Summary Conformity can occur in ambiguous situations (Sherif) and clearcut situations (Asch). People conform to be right (informational influence) and to be liked (normative influence). People are more likely to conform when the group is unanimous and important Social Influence Summary Obedience to authority is often adaptive. However, sometimes people obey orders that are harmful to others (Milgram). Obedience is lessened when individuals: Are aware of the suffering they cause Feel personally responsible for their actions Observe others who disobey authority ...
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