Unformatted text preview: Attitudes What is an attitude? An enduring evaluation, positive or negative, of people, objects, or ideas.
Cognitive response Affective response Behavioral response ABC Tripartite Model of Responses 1. Affect 2. Behavior Attitude 3. Cognition ABC's of attitudes
Example: Attitude toward Nazis ABC Tripartite Model of Evaluative Responses Affect--Prejudice "I feel disgust towards Nazis." Behavior--Discrimination "I will not sit next to a Nazi on a bus." "I think that Nazis are ignorant and submissive." Cognition--Stereotype Antecedents of Attitudes ABC Tripartite Model of Antecedents
Cognitive processes Affective processes Behaviora l processes Attitude CognitivelyBased Attitude
Attitudes based primarily on one's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object "I like my Toshiba laptop because it has a 40 GB harddrive, a Pentium IV processor, and an integrated wireless internet card." AffectivelyBased Attitudes
Attitudes based more on feelings and values than on cognitions. "I like the color red." BehaviorallyBased Attitude
Attitudes based on observations of how one behaves towards an attitude object. "I play soccer 3 days a week, therefore, I must like soccer." Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes Explicit attitudes consciously endorse and can easily report. Implicit attitudes involuntary, uncontrollable, and often unconscious. Where do attitudes come from? Learning Association--Classical conditioning Reinforcement and punishment--Operant conditioning Imitation/modeling Socialization Cognitively developed Behaviorally developed Genes Tesser, 1993, Identical twins raised apart Attitude Change
Persuasion Persuasion Change in private attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message. Dual Process Models of Persuasion: Chaiken's heuristicsystematic persuasion model Petty and Cacioppo's elaboration likelihood model (ELM) Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo,1986)
2 ways that attitude change occurs: 1. Central Route 2. Peripheral Route Which route produces more enduring attitude change? Central route Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)
Factors that influence a person's motivation to process a message deeply (central route): Personal relevance of the topic Need for cognition the tendency to enjoy and engage in deliberate thought. Persuasion Attempt Audience Factors Processing Approach Persuasion Outcome High motivation Deep processing (central route), Lasting change Message Low motivation Superficial processing (peripheral route) Temporary change Petty, Cacioppo, & Goldman (1981)
Asked college students to read arguments in favor of mandatory comprehensive exams. IVs: 1. Personal relevance 2. 3. Argument Strength Policy begins next year vs. 10 years from now high quality vs. low quality Princeton professor vs. high school student Prestige of speaker DV: How much do you agree with this speaker's position? Petty & Cacioppo (1981) Persuasive Appeals What is the most common form of persuasive appeal? Advertising How many advertised appeals do you think you are exposed to on an average day?
500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000? More than 3000 (up from approx 560 in 1970) Advertising on Television What's the purpose of TV?
To inform and entertain the public? To provide a captive audience for marketers Average American by age 75 will spend more than 8 years watching TV
More T.V. sets in U.S. today than toilets! Approx 18 ads per 30 minutes of air time TV Ads and Kids Average American kid spends more time watching TV than any other waking activity Approx 40 hours per week Contrasts with 8.5 hours on homework, time with parents, and reading combined Young kids do not discriminate between ads and programs Even older kids who know the difference do not recognize persuasive intent of ads Strong attitudes resist persuasion Grownups are harder to persuade than kids Their attitudes are more likely to remain unchanged as time passes Strong attitudes are better able to withstand persuasive attacks or appeals specifically directed at them. Strategies for Attitude Change
"It is useless to attempt to reason a man out of a thing he was never reasoned into" Jonathan Swift If attitude is primarily cognitivelybased, try to change with rational arguments If attitude is affectivelybased, appeal to audience's emotions Cognitive vs. Affective CognitivelyBased AffectivelyBased Utilitarian Products Examples Social Identity Products Examples Perfume Designer Products Alcohol Vacuum cleaners Car insurance Coffee Fear Appeals
Fear Appeals emphasize harmful physical or social consequences Effective fear appeals: 1. Moderate amount of fear
2. Information provided on how to reduce fear Persuasion through Advertising "You can tell the ideals of a nation by its advertisements." George Norman Douglas Consumers don't think about why we make decisions Half of consumers' purchases are impulse buys Advertising More products are bought if they are: At eyelevel Closer to checkout Ads contain words: new, quick, easy, etc. Ads contain: animals, babies, sex appeal Bundle priced: 2 for 1, etc. Resisting Persuasion Attitude Inoculation People can better resist a persuasive communication if they've been exposed to mild persuasive attempts before receiving the actual message Product placement Be aware! Avoid reactance Reactance Theory
Pennebaker & Sanders, 1976 IV: Sign
1. 2. "Do not write on these walls under any circumstances." "Please don't write on these walls." DV: amount of graffiti Results: more graffiti with stronger admonition Subliminal Advertising Subliminal messages: words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but supposedly influence people's judgments, attitudes, and behaviors Subliminal Advertising Subliminal Advertising 1950s: movie theatre in New Jersey flashed "drink CocaCola" and "eat popcorn" Purported that Coke sales increased by 18%, popcorn by 58% What was the reaction to this? FCC banned the use of subliminal messages on radio and TV New Yorker: "...minds had been broken and entered." Subliminal Advertising No control group in the movie theatre "subliminal" study; owner admitted he exaggerated claims to boost business There is no evidence that the types of subliminal messages used in everyday life have any influence on behavior Subliminal Advertising
Greenwald et al. (1991) IV: audio tape with "subliminal messages" (memory vs. selfesteem) DVs: memory improvement; selfesteem improvement Results: Neither tape had any effect However--Ps thought the tapes worked, even when they were misinformed! Priming vs. Subliminal Messages For priming to be effective: Illumination of room No distractions Seated certain distance from screen Attitudes & Behavior
When will attitudes predict behavior? Attitudes and Behavior LaPiere (1934) study White professor toured America with Chinese couple. Stopped at 66 hotels and 184 restaurants. Only 1 refused them service. 6 months later, LaPiere sent same hotels and restaurants questionnaires: "Would you serve Chinese patrons?" Results: No: 92%; Yes: <1%; Undecided: 7% When do attitudes affect behavior? Stable , strong attitudes Important attitudes Easily accessed attitudes Attitudes formed through direct experience Attitudes of which you're certain Reasoned Action Model
Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) General theory of attitudebehavior link When does attitude predict behavior? Our behavior can be predicted from our intentions to act Intentions can be predicted from our attitude and subjective social norms Reasoned Action Model
Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) Strengths of Model Explains a wide range of behaviors using small # of variables High correlations between variables and behavior (.77) Weaknesses of Model Intentions may not predict behavior. Other variables affect behavior. Theory of planned behavior Revision of the theory of reasoned action Behavioral intentions are a function of 1. 2. 3. attitudes toward behavior subjective norms perceived behavioral control Theory of Planned Behavior
Attitude toward behavior Subjective Norm Perceived Control Intention Behavior Davidson & Jaccard, 1979
Women were asked about their attitudes toward birth control (bc) More specific questions better predicted actual use of birth control Attitude Measure Attitudebehavior correlation Attitude toward bc .08 Attitude toward bc pills .32 Attitude toward using bc pills .53 Attitude toward using bc .57 during next 2 years ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course PSYC 260 taught by Professor Traceycallison during the Spring '08 term at UNC.
- Spring '08
- Social Psychology