Chapter 3—Molecular Propositions, but no molecular facts
Chapter 4—Propositions and Facts with more than one verb
A note about names and particulars: Remember, for Russell a proper name names a
And, we understand the name when we’re acquainted with the thing is names
and know that it names it.
Understanding predicates (qualities, relations, etc.) involves
To understand a predicate, such as ‘is red’, Russell thinks you must be
able to apply propositions, of the form ‘X is red’.
A note about terminology: Russell says that every sentence isn’t a subject predicate
This may seem confusing.
What he means is that there are some sentences
which are statements of general fact, not simply statements of particular facts.
particular is what Russell is considering a ‘subject’.
If the sentence is a general statement,
not about a particular, then it’s not a subject-predicate sentence on R’s view.)
At the end of the last chapter, we had the introduction of a first level of complexity
for propositions and facts: atomic propositions/facts.
Atomic propositions are those involving only one verb, and atomic facts are those
involving only one quality or relation.
But, we now add more complexity into our system, at least at the level of
So, we have
such as ‘and,’ ‘or,’ ‘if/then,’ and ‘if and only if’ (or, iff, for
Now, clearly, we can use these operators to stick together atomic
So, I can say, ‘Tom went to the bank,’ and I can say, ‘Sally went to the store,’ and,
using the or-operator, I can say, ‘Tom went to the bank or Sally went to the store.’
Now, remember one of our central assumptions: facts make propositions true or
Suppose the sentence, ‘Tom went to the bank or Sally went to the store,’ is true.
fact that makes it true?
Suppose that there is.