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Unformatted text preview: Term Sheet for January 17, 2008 Byzantine Empire, 324-1453 C.E. • Constantinople Capitol of Empire • Emperor Constantine (d. 327) First Christian Emperor of Rome o Adoption of Christianity came during a fight to maintain his rule Saw a vision of a cross and was convinced that if he followed the cross he would be victorious and painted crosses on shields of his followers • Battle of the Milavian Bridge 312 o Battle where Constantine painted crosses on shields o Turning point but does not make Christianity a state religion • Edict of Milan 313 o Christians can pursue faith and practice it without being persecuted • Council of Chalcedon 451 o People who had previously thought that Christ was man and G-d were right. o Christ’s nature is mysterious, and the empire declares and orthodox position to this effect. But this makes all the other definitions (already in play throughout the Middle East) incorrect – heretics. The heretical groups are in strategic positions of the Middle East (part of the empire that borders Sasanian empire and Arabia.) • Monophysite Christians, Jacobites (Syria), Copts (Egypt) o The Byz. had significant internal divisions so that Christians were unhappy o Monophysite – focus on the divine part of Jesus o By 451, they were not about to retreat from their beliefs, even if it meant being a heretic. To define heretics means to make others wrong. They thought that the emperor was a heretic o The Byz. persecuted local churches = disaffection. o Heretics had to pay more taxes. • Nestorian Christians, Iraq and Iran o Persecuted group. o Thought they were the only ones that were right. o Emphasized the humanity of Jesus. Could not comprehend that Jesus’ mother could give birth to anyone that was not human o Went to Sasanian Empire to escape persecution Sasanian Empire, 234-651 C.E. • Ctesiphon o Capitol of Empire • Shah o King in Persian • Zoroastrianism o This is described in text as a monotheism. This is disputed Satan may have gotten his start with Zoroastrianism. The combat between evil and good is present in all of the ethical faiths. • In Zoro. the believer comes into the faith and has to choose. • You are going to go into ethical combat on the side of the good. • Who will prevail in the end? The human impacts this. • Ahura Mazda is not omnipotent – this is where Zoro parts with others. o He has a major enemy and his combat is to continue to the end of the world. o Fire is a symbol of Zoroastrianism. o Interesting text – a wise man has a journey to heaven and to hell, and he writes about it as having layers (stages). Zoroastrians thought hell was a cold place (distinctive feature – to the north)....
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course HIST 306k taught by Professor Spellberg during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.
- Spring '08
- Byzantine Empire