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Unformatted text preview: Term Sheet for January 17, 2008 Byzantine Empire, 324-1453 C.E. Constantinople Capitol of Empire Emperor Constantine (d. 327) First Christian Emperor of Rome o Adoption of Christianity came during a fight to maintain his rule Saw a vision of a cross and was convinced that if he followed the cross he would be victorious and painted crosses on shields of his followers Battle of the Milavian Bridge 312 o Battle where Constantine painted crosses on shields o Turning point but does not make Christianity a state religion Edict of Milan 313 o Christians can pursue faith and practice it without being persecuted Council of Chalcedon 451 o People who had previously thought that Christ was man and G-d were right. o Christs nature is mysterious, and the empire declares and orthodox position to this effect. But this makes all the other definitions (already in play throughout the Middle East) incorrect heretics. The heretical groups are in strategic positions of the Middle East (part of the empire that borders Sasanian empire and Arabia.) Monophysite Christians, Jacobites (Syria), Copts (Egypt) o The Byz. had significant internal divisions so that Christians were unhappy o Monophysite focus on the divine part of Jesus o By 451, they were not about to retreat from their beliefs, even if it meant being a heretic. To define heretics means to make others wrong. They thought that the emperor was a heretic o The Byz. persecuted local churches = disaffection. o Heretics had to pay more taxes. Nestorian Christians, Iraq and Iran o Persecuted group. o Thought they were the only ones that were right. o Emphasized the humanity of Jesus. Could not comprehend that Jesus mother could give birth to anyone that was not human o Went to Sasanian Empire to escape persecution Sasanian Empire, 234-651 C.E. Ctesiphon o Capitol of Empire Shah o King in Persian Zoroastrianism o This is described in text as a monotheism. This is disputed Satan may have gotten his start with Zoroastrianism. The combat between evil and good is present in all of the ethical faiths. In Zoro. the believer comes into the faith and has to choose. You are going to go into ethical combat on the side of the good. Who will prevail in the end? The human impacts this. Ahura Mazda is not omnipotent this is where Zoro parts with others. o He has a major enemy and his combat is to continue to the end of the world. o Fire is a symbol of Zoroastrianism. o Interesting text a wise man has a journey to heaven and to hell, and he writes about it as having layers (stages). Zoroastrians thought hell was a cold place (distinctive feature to the north)....
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- Spring '08
- Byzantine Empire