Chapter 9 - Acids, Bases, and Salts sv2.pptx - Acids and Bases Chapter 9 Acids and Bases Acids and bases are chemical opposites and so their properties

Chapter 9 - Acids, Bases, and Salts sv2.pptx - Acids and...

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Acids and Bases Chapter 9
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Acids and Bases Acids and bases are chemical opposites, and so their properties are quite different – often opposite.
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Properties of Acids An acid is a compound that: Tastes sour Causes litmus to turn red Dissolves active metals such as zinc and iron, producing hydrogen gas Reacts with bases to form water and ionic compounds called salts.
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Properties of Bases A base is a compound that: Tastes bitter Causes litmus to turn blue Feels slippery on the skin Reacts with acids to form water and salts
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Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory Arrhenius found that when substances like HCl, HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 were dissolved in water, they behaved as _______________. Arrhenius proposed that this was due to _____________reactions in water. Svante Arrhenius: 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for “electrolytic theory of dissociation"
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Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory Arrhenius ____________: hydrogen-containing compound that, in water, produces hydrogen ions (H + ions). Arrhenius ____________: hydroxide-containing compound that, in water, produces hydroxide ions (OH - ions)
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Limitations of the Arrhenius Theory For instance, ammonia can act as a base but does not contain hydroxide ions:
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Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory Bronsted-Lowry acid: substance that can ___________ a proton (H + ) to some other substance. Bronsted-Lowry base: substance that can _____________ a proton (H + ) from some other substance.
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Brønsted–Lowry Acids 9 A Brønsted–Lowry acid must contain a hydrogen atom . Common Brønsted–Lowry acids ( H A): H Cl hydrochloric acid H Br hydrobromic acid C H H H C O O H acidic H atom acetic acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid H NO 3 nitric acid
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10 The names of common acids are derived from the anions formed when they dissolve in water. Anions whose names end in –ide , add the prefix hydro and change the –ide ending to –ic acid . Cl HCl chlor ide hydro chlor ic acid Brønsted–Lowry Acids
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Brønsted–Lowry Acids 11 Polyatomic anions whose names end in –ate , change the –ate ending to –ic acid . SO 4 2− H 2 SO 4 sulf ate sulfur ic acid Polyatomic anions whose names end in –ite , change the –ite ending to –ous acid . SO 3 2− H 2 SO 3 sulf ite sulfur ous acid
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Polyprotic Acids Some acids, known as _________________ acids can only supply one proton (H + ) per molecule during an acid-base reaction. Other acids, known as ________________ acids can supply two or more protons (H + ) per molecule during an acid-base reaction.
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  • Fall '16
  • Christine Gaudinski
  • Bases

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