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Janet Belsky’sExperiencing the Lifespan, 1eChapter 6:Childhood: Socioemotional Development
Setting the ContextThe challenge: Regulating our emotionsSocialization requires regulating our emotionsEmotion-regulation occurs in the frontal lobesTwo problematic temperamental typesExternalizingThese children wear their emotions on their sleevesTheir actions are disruptive and aggressiveInternalizingThese children hold back too muchThey appear timid and insecureThey often look anxious or depressed
Self UnderstandingAs children enter concrete operations at age 7 or 8They learn to understand inner statesThey look beyond immediate surface appearancesCan reason and understand their worldThey fully understand that others have different viewsThey realize we are not the center of the universeAlthough, they do not all mature at the same rateDo not posses abstract thinking.
PersonalitySelf-awareness is our ability to reflect on (think about and analyze) ourselves.From age 3 to 7 Children shift from:The external-fact-oriented self to internal psychological selfGlobal (All Great) self to a Multidimensional realistic self»“It’s just me in the world self” to “me compared to others”Self-esteemis the tendency to feel good or bad about oneself as a result of comparing the self to other people.This tendency becomes a major issue during elementary schoolSelf esteem appears to decline in early elementary school as children begin to rate themselves against their classmates
PersonalityHow do we rate ourselves?Concrete operations gives us the ability to serializeNow we can place ourselves and others in a hierarchy We compare ourselves to others and feel inferior/superiorWe realize that we rise and fall differently in different areas»In individualistic cultures researchers find the areas of: scholastics, behavioral conduct, athletic skills, peer likeability, physical attractiveness. »Children in Communal cultures do not appear to have the same areas of concern.Feelings of inferiority can make us strive harder or give up»Erikson’s Industry (striving for a goal) vs. inferiority stage (age 6-puberty)It is the area children hold valuable that reflects self-worth.We need to teach children to accentuate their positives and minimize their negatives.
Self Esteem DistortionsExcessively high self-esteemChildren with externalizing tendencies report high self-esteem with the position “I’m fine. It’s their problem”.With this attitude they will have trouble improving or don’t see a need to improve.Excessively low self-esteemChildren with internalizing tendencies tend to be overly self critical.