4.2 Types of Nonverbal Communication _ Communication in the Real World_ An Introduction to Communica

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Principles of Information Systems
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 20
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2/11/2018 4.2 Types of Nonverbal Communication | Communication in the Real World: An Introduction to Communication Studies 1/21 Communication in the Real World: An Introduction to Communication Studies University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing Search for: Search 4.2 Types of Nonverbal Communication Previous Next Learning Objectives 1. Define kinesics. 2. Define haptics. 3. Define vocalics. 4. Define proxemics. 5. Define chronemics. 6. Provide examples of types of nonverbal communication that fall under these categories. 7. Discuss the ways in which personal presentation and environment provide nonverbal cues. Just as verbal language is broken up into various categories, there are also different types of nonverbalcommunication. As we learn about each type of nonverbal signal, keep in mind that nonverbals often work inconcert with each other, combining to repeat, modify, or contradict the verbal message being sent.KinesicsThe word kinesics comes from the root word kinesis, which means “movement,” and refers to the study of hand,arm, body, and face movements. Specifically, this section will outline the use of gestures, head movements andposture, eye contact, and facial expressions as nonverbal communication.GesturesThere are three main types of gestures: adaptors, emblems, and illustrators (Andersen, 1999). Adaptors aretouching behaviors and movements that indicate internal states typically related to arousal or anxiety. Adaptorscan be targeted toward the self, objects, or others. In regular social situations, adaptors result from uneasiness,anxiety, or a general sense that we are not in control of our surroundings. Many of us subconsciously click pens,shake our legs, or engage in other adaptors during classes, meetings, or while waiting as a way to do somethingwith our excess energy. Public speaking students who watch video recordings of their speeches notice nonverbaladaptors that they didn’t know they used. In public speaking situations, people most commonly use self- orobject-focused adaptors. Common self-touching behaviors like scratching, twirling hair, or fidgeting with fingersor hands are considered self-adaptors. Some self-adaptors manifest internally, as coughs or throat-clearingsounds. My personal weakness is object adaptors. Specifically, I subconsciously gravitate toward metallicobjects like paper clips or staples holding my notes together and catch myself bending them or fidgeting withthem while I’m speaking. Other people play with dry-erase markers, their note cards, the change in their pockets,or the lectern while speaking. Use of object adaptors can also signal boredom as people play with the straw in
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 20
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2/11/20184.2 Types of Nonverbal Communication | Communication in the Real World: An Introduction to Communication Studies2/21their drink or peel the label off a bottle of beer. Smartphones have become common object adaptors, as peoplecan fiddle with their phones to help ease anxiety. Finally, as noted, other adaptors are more common in social

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