MARS 1010 Study Guide
Earth History Objectives:
What evidence (data) is used to argue for an expanding universe that began
with a central ancient explosion (the Big Bang)?
How long ago do we think this
What data is used to estimate the age of the universe?
The main sort of evidence used to argue the validity of the big bang theory is the
red shift, a Doppler like effect based off a general shift towards the red
frequencies (lower frequencies) in the absorption spectra of distant stars.
Most stars appear to be moving away from us.
They move faster, the further
they are away they are.
We generally think that this happened around 13.7
billion years ago, + or – 1%.
How does our understanding of the Big Bang illustrate the scientific method?
There was a question that needed an answer.
What is the origin of our universe.
Lemaitre hypothesized that we were a part of an expanding universe, which was
supported by red shift data collected by the Hubble telescope.
WMAP data fine
tunes our estimates regarding the timeframe of the big bang.
How did our solar system form?
How are the four inner planets (Mercury,
Venus, Earth, Mars) similar?
Our solar system formed from the remnants of a super nova, a collapsed and
Gases and dust coalesced and reignited H fusion.
about the same size, much warmer (vapor), more atmosphere (100x Earth),
atmosphere is mostly CO
, has a potent natural “greenhouse effect” (+480°C
instead of +54°C).
is smaller, colder (frozen), less mass, less atmosphere
(<1% of Earth), atmosphere is mostly CO
small greenhouse effect
instead of -60°C)
Where did the Earth’s ocean come from?
Earths oceans formed through a process called differentiation. Radioactivity and
Extraterrestrial bombardment provided the energy to melt earth’s core, and
slowly the less dense atoms/compounds migrated outwards towards the surface,
and the heavier elements such as iron stayed in the center. Differentiation
emitted gases: H
When earth’s temperature cooled
to below 100 C, water vapor could condense and rain down to form the earth’s
Why don’t Mars and Venus have oceans?
Do you think there might be other