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MARS 1010 Study Guide, exam 1

MARS 1010 Study Guide, exam 1 - MARS 1010 Study Guide Earth...

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MARS 1010 Study Guide Earth History Objectives: 1. What evidence (data) is used to argue for an expanding universe that began with a central ancient explosion (the Big Bang)? How long ago do we think this happened? What data is used to estimate the age of the universe? The main sort of evidence used to argue the validity of the big bang theory is the red shift, a Doppler like effect based off a general shift towards the red frequencies (lower frequencies) in the absorption spectra of distant stars. In turn, Most stars appear to be moving away from us. They move faster, the further they are away they are. We generally think that this happened around 13.7 billion years ago, + or – 1%. 2. How does our understanding of the Big Bang illustrate the scientific method? There was a question that needed an answer. What is the origin of our universe. Lemaitre hypothesized that we were a part of an expanding universe, which was supported by red shift data collected by the Hubble telescope. WMAP data fine tunes our estimates regarding the timeframe of the big bang. 3. How did our solar system form? How are the four inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars) similar? Different? Our solar system formed from the remnants of a super nova, a collapsed and exploding star. Gases and dust coalesced and reignited H fusion. Venus is about the same size, much warmer (vapor), more atmosphere (100x Earth), atmosphere is mostly CO 2 , has a potent natural “greenhouse effect” (+480°C instead of +54°C). Mars is smaller, colder (frozen), less mass, less atmosphere (<1% of Earth), atmosphere is mostly CO 2, small greenhouse effect (-50°C instead of -60°C) 4. Where did the Earth’s ocean come from? Earths oceans formed through a process called differentiation. Radioactivity and Extraterrestrial bombardment provided the energy to melt earth’s core, and slowly the less dense atoms/compounds migrated outwards towards the surface, and the heavier elements such as iron stayed in the center. Differentiation emitted gases: H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 , SO 2 , H 2 , Cl 2 , Ar. When earth’s temperature cooled to below 100 C, water vapor could condense and rain down to form the earth’s ˚ oceans. 5. Why don’t Mars and Venus have oceans? Do you think there might be other
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planets or moons with oceans in the universe? Do you think these places might also have life? Venus doesn’t have an ocean because of its high surface temperatures and smothering atmosphere (100x that of Earth). Any water is in the form of vapor. Mars has no ocean because it is too cold, with very little atmosphere. Any liquid water has evaporated or stayed underground. Both Europa and Gandymeade, two of Jupiter’s moons could possibly have liquid oceans beneath thick ice caps. Properties of Water Objective:
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MARS 1010 Study Guide, exam 1 - MARS 1010 Study Guide Earth...

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