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Chapter 18 Notes.docx - Chapter 18: Health Psychology -...

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Chapter 18: Health Psychology-Health Psychology division of the APA is 38 and was founded in 1978-Primarily concerned with how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors influence ourphysical health-Also called behavioral medicine (sometimes although not exactly accurate)Definitions: Health Psychology Versus Behavioral Medicine-Behavioral medicine involves the integration of knowledge from a wide variety of socialsciences, including psychology, sociology, and anthropology, with knowledge from themedical disciplines-Health psychology is a subdivision of behavioral medicine that deals specifically withhow psychological processes influence health and illnessoPrimary responsibility is the development, assessment, and application ofprograms designed to promote wellnessoFrequently work within primary care teams alongside physiciansStress-First applications of field of health psychology only focused on stress-Stress is the psychological and/or physiological response to difficult or demandinginternal or external circumstances-Walter Cannon in 1932 – Fight or flight responseoWhen an organism perceives a threat, the body rapidly mobilizes energy reservesvia the sympathetic nervous system and endocrine system to either fight or fleeoToday’s fight or flight look a lot different (i.e. honking your horn as fighting)-Chronic stress – refers to the all-too-common syndrome defined by stress levels that areconsistently high and never faltering, often due to a hectic, fast-paced lifestyleo55% of women and 43% of men report having chronic stressoBodies not set up to handle long-term exposure to stress so eventually we willbecome exhausted and vulnerable to illness-Hans Selye (1956) – general adaptation syndrome hypothesisoWhen confronted with a temporary stressor, our fight-or-flight system often worksvery effectively, but with repeated or prolonged exposure to stress, our bodieseventually wear out and break downStress and Physical Illness-Stress has been linked to: migraines, osteoporosis, chronic back pain, cardiovasculardisease, ulcers, diarrhea, acne, and fertility problems-Researchers at the American Institute of Stress (1997) estimate that 75% to 90% of allvisits to healthcare providers result from stress-related disorders and that those who arestressed are 6 times more likely to be hospitalized for a physical ailment than those whoare not-Stress can lead to:oincreased levels of thyroid hormones, resulting in insomnia and weight loss;odepleted endorphins, resulting in bodily pain;oreduced sex hormones, leading to amenorrhea or infertility;othe shutting down of the digestive system, resulting in nausea, bloating, and drymouth; andoan excess of cholesterol release that can contribute to blocked arteries, bloodpressure increases of up to 400%, stroke, or aneurism
-One of the most debilitating effects of stress is the weakening of our immune system-Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which controls the releaseof our body’s stress hormone, cortisol-

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Term
Fall
Professor
Derek Szafranski

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