Identifying & Describing Individuals with ASDHistory & Theories
Readings for This Topic•Sicile-Kira (2014): Chapter 1 – The Myths and History of Autism Spectrum Disorder•Williams, K., Woolfenden, S., Roberts, J., Rodger, S., Bartak, L., & Prior, M. (2014). Autism in context: classification, counting, and causes. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 50, 335-340.•Lyall, K., Croen, L., Daniels, J., Fallin, M.D., Ladd-Acosta, C., Lee, B.K…& Newshaffer, C. (2017). The changing epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders. The Annual Review of Public Health, 38, 81-102.
Lesson Goals•Briefly describe the history and early theories of autism spectrum disorders.•What are the core areas of deficit in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?•Describe the prevalence of ASD over the last few decades. •Briefly describe some common myths and controversies associated with autism.
HISTORY OF ASD
Leo Kanner•In 1943 Dr. Leo Kanner first describes autism as a distinct condition.•In 1977 Sir Michael Rutter and Dr. Susan Folstein publish the first autism twin study, revealing evidence for a genetic basis for autism.•1977-1978 Drs. Rutter and Schopler further their studies in defining signs and symptoms of autism.
Kanner (cont)•Children with autism were historically believed to be schizophrenic•In 1943 Leo Kanner described 11 cases of what he termed “early infantile autism” noting ways in which it was distinctive from psychosis/schizophrenia •Kanner’s choice of the word “autism” was made because “auto” = self•Although many of Kanner’s observations have lasted, his speculations about certain aspects of the illness (e.g., normal IQ, lack of association with other medical conditions, poor parenting/education) have been proven incorrect
The History of Asperger’s Syndrome•1944, Austria•Hans Asperger (in Austria) proposed the concept of “autistic psychopathy” •Observations of 4 children, which resembled Kanner’s concept in some ways•Now known as Asperger's •Avoid the use of the word psychopathy and to separate it from general autism•Also referred to as high-functioning autism
Lorna Wing and Judy Gould•1970s in Camberwell, South London•Studied children with features of autism, those who had an IQ < 50, or both•Many children could not be fit into Kanner’s description•Broader autism phenotype, not separate disorders•Triad of Impairments•Social relations•Communication•Imagination•Used Hans Asperger’s work to incorporate the group of children he studied into the “spectrum” they envisionedLorna WingJudy Gould
Continuing Autism Research•1988-1991 Many studies related to Autism and genetic connection•1992 The American Psychiatric Association refines the diagnostic criteria for Autism•1997 Genetic linkage from specific chromosomes to Autism and the first genomic screen •1999-2001 During this time evidence was found in genomic regions that have possible genes that are associated with autism.