Copy of ANTH Final Study Guide.pdf - Critique What is...

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Critique What is cultural relativism? EP? No culture is superior to another. Farmer argues that cultural relativism effectively leads to a lack of advocacy on the part of the poor and sick from doctors and anthropologists, who he says maintain a general ambivalence toward the suffering of the impoverished in the Third World. Bourgois - "Most ethnographers offer sympathetic readings of the culture or people they study. Abu Lughod argues against cultural relativism Abu Lughod-Do Muslim women really need saving Write about their critique to cultural relativism, also with labeling theory write against it Pg 786 “cultural relativism is certainly an improvement on ethnocentrism and the racism, cultural imperialism, and imperiousness-Abu Lughod (Homo)sexuality Key figures: Halperin, Kulick, Foucalt First and foremost, you have to address POST-STRUCTURALISM. Please pay attention to the methods of post-structuralists such as genealogy as well as Kulick's emphasis on formation of masculine identity Kulick on Masculine Identity Formations (the transvesti article) A soccer star, Ronaldo, was caught having had sex with a transvesti, a transgendered prostitute, so people said he was a homosexual even though he claimed he was heterosexual. Kulick: “...the cover has been blown on the kind of masculine sexuality with which Ronaldo was raised. In the new configuration of sexuality, sexual practice is no longer separable from sexual identity. You can no longer have sex with a homosexual and not be considered a homosexual yourself.” “the real casualty of this case...may prove to be the particular form of Brazilian masculinity that Ronaldo represents, and the tacit cultural understanding that help support it” a masculinity “which can only really exist in a world that doesn’t divide everyone into gay or straight...and when a man might have sexual relations with a travesti and not have his masculinity and his sexuality challenged--as long as it is certain he assumed the role of penetrator during the sexual encounter.” So what are Kulick and Haperin trying to tell us? Homosexuality did not exist until 19th century (post structuralist) Certainly men had sexual relations with boys or men, just as they have done in many other cultures. But they were not classified as homosexuals; they weren't regarded as sexually deviant or perverse. The Greeks did not consider themselves in any way defined by their sexual habits -- IT WAS NOT AN IDENTITY. These sexual categories themselves are very modern constructions.
Post-structuralist (Foucalt) rupture from structuralist (Claude Levi-Strauss) is not required but you might get extra credit) YOU COULD DEFINITELY BRING IN MOLLES-> Greek sexuality o Key figures: Halperin, Kulick, Foucalt o First and foremost you have to address post-structuralism. Please pay attention to the methods of post structuralists such as genealogy as well as Kulick’s emphasis on formation of masculine identity.

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