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ANTH 226 EXAM III REVIEW - 10.15.2007 Religions Africa...

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10.15.2007 Religions- Africa Khoisan - believe in a supreme being who presides over daily life and controls elements of the environment - evil deity brings illness and misfortune to earth - belief systems maintain that a person should never attempt to communicate with the beneficent deity, for fear of provoking his evil counterpart, and some believe that spiritual beings simply ignore humanity most of the time. - Important was the use of dance and altered states of consciousness to gain knowledge for healing an individual or remedying a social evil. o Worship rituals or small sacrifices Nilotic - Divinity less substantitive, less anthropomorphic ("He" or "She"?) - Sub-forces represented in "natural phenomena" - e.g. rain - God takes a direct interest in human affairs - people pray to God - people sacrifice to God - God metes out moral punishment - Religion permeates life, i.e. no separate religious organization or ritual groups as such - Beliefs stress group responsibility vs individual greed, cleanliness vs pollution, avoidance of "unnatural" acts -->abnormalities - Little concern with witchcraft, evil eye, etc. - Bare bik teta , God knows me, Kipsang’s death Bantu - God generally removed from humans peoples daily lives - emphasis on ancestors (statues, divine pairs, etc.) - religious observances, cults, in hierarchies- priest, shrines - central focus is to preserve one's vital force o by doing what ancestors want you to do o punishment giving my ancestors when not living correctly or by evil people have to bring in experts to give diagnosis to find out if it is the ancestors or the result of witchcraft o punishment meted out by ancestors, OR o attacks by other humans, i.e. o scorcery (manipulation of "medicines“ usually by specialists) o witchcraft: evil intent by others thought is behavior envy is harmful, not to be provoked o o gods are male and female- paired diviners are strange people since nothing happens by accident, diviners are needed to locate blame on self (or own group) vs others West - people are priest - - shrine - Strong emphasis on personal fait- chi - The forces of life/death lead a person to tragic unavoidable conflicts - Similar to ancient med. Beliefs o Trickster tales
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o Beliefs about earth, air, fire and water o Personification of god in more than one figure o Religion is a struggle to promote order in a very complex world - witchcraft - sacrifice - sin washed by blood - anointing changes identity - idea that people change can identity into animals/animal familiars at night - long slow lingering deaths caused by someone draining life from you - Witchcraft any can of antisocial obsession, behavior involves speech and thought o Kenya passed at law that it was against the law saying it was a against the law to thin bad things about people Some cases of “witchcraft - Kipsegis o Story of the wife- Witch murderer Arap Mutai had arranged the marriage of his daughter to Arap Taiywa – middle aged, upstanding cattle owner.
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