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Mitosis and meiosis notes

Mitosis and meiosis notes - By the end of section you...

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By the end of section you should be able to: •Distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes •Identify elements of a chromosome •Describe the cell cycle •Describe the steps in mitosis and meiosis •Explain the differences/similarities between mitosis and meiosis Organisms are diverse but have common features: 1.A complete set of genetic instructions found in genome 2.All genomes encoded in nucleic acids 3.Genetic info copied/decoded in similar ways 4.Instructions in same format, and usually identical code words Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Histones limit access to DNA but allow it to fit in nucleus DNA must disassociate before replication Prokaryotic cells—bacterial DNA in red Eukaryotic DNA complexed with histones—chromosome For a cell to reproduce, 3 events must occur: 1. Copy genetic info 2. Separate copies from each other 3. Cell must divide How cells do this differs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes Prokaryotic cell reproduction
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•Each species has a characteristic # of chromosomes (chr) •Appears to be no relationship between complexity of organism and # of chr Indian Muntjacdeer—barking deer—6 chr —has fewest # of all mammals Related species: Roe deer: 70 chr Usually have 2 sets of chromosomes - 1 from each parent Each chr has a “twin”—together make a homologous pair Diploid - 2 sets of genetic info-2 copies of each gene Haploid -1 set of genetic info-1 copy of each gene Each chromosome is 1 linear DNA molecule- some human chr would be several cm long Functional chr has 3 elements: •Centromere-
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