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Post Midterm Notes

Post Midterm Notes - Lecture Notes no posted Nationalism...

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10-16-07 Lecture Notes no posted Nationalism and Independence, 1 *Nigerian Music by Femi before class International Context o Post WWII decolonization everywhere (example of India being decolonized prompts more) o Expectation that newly independent colonies would remain loyal to old owners o Cold War context used to justify US and Soviet intervention in newly independent African colonies (looking for allies) Over-Arching Analytical Issues o Relative importance of European decision-making vs. African resistance o Especially on the part of British and French o African resistance everywhere o Europeans always looking at money balance o European cost benefit analyses o Resistance played a large role o More resistance meant too much cost to keep the colony under rule o “Neocolonialism” continued, now more indirect, influence of European powers over African affairs (political and economic) Modes of Decolonization o In places without significant European colonists or capitalist enterprises, African activism yielded results comparatively quickly. o 1951-60: generally peaceful agreement on independence for parts of North Africa, British West Africa, and French African south of the Sahara (Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Ivory Coast) o Where there was significant settler population and/or capitalist enterprises, the stakes for European colonialists was higher, and Africans had to fight more intensely for independence. o Early 1960’s less smooth independence for French North Africa, British East and Central Africa, Belgian Congo and elsewhere o 1974-80: independence of former Portuguese territories and Zimbabwe, all results of guerilla wars o 1990’s: surprisingly peaceful independence of Namibia and South Africa; war for independence of Entria from Ethiopia Gold Coast/Ghana o Ghana was the 1 st independent colony south of the Sahara o British saw Gold Coast as more advanced and educated o Much more willing to do political reforms here than anywhere else o Ghana, 1951 1 st election beginning of end of British rule o United Gold coast Convention (UGCC) – to contest local elections for assembly
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o 1948 demonstrations o Conventions People’s Party (CPP) o 1951 Nkrumah became leader of Government Business o 1954 Nkrumah became Prime Minister o 1957 independence of Ghana o Nkrumah’s campaign “Positive Action” boycotted European business o Nkrumah went directly from prison to the State House o Took the name Ghana because symbolic of strong kingdom o Anthem – written by E. T. Mensah “King of Highlife” o Nkrumah “Father of African Nationalism” o Nkrumah overthrown in 1966 by coup o Accused of paying to much attention to pan-African needs than needs at home Nigeria o 7 times as big as Ghana o Regional Political parties o NCNC in the Southeast led by Nnamdi Azikiwe o Action Group in the southwest led by Obafemi Awolowo o Northern People’s Congress in the north led by Abubakar Tafawa Balewa o Independence with Federal Constitution, 1960 o British split Nigeria in 3 parts (3 different political parties, sources of funding, etc.)
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