bio notes.docx - y Tuesday 9 February 2016 1:54 p.m Chapter...

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y Tuesday, 9 February 2016 1:54 p.m. Chapter 1) Bio Intro Biology: the study of living organisms Emergent properties : a property that a collection or complex system has but which individual members do not have Biosphere: regions of the surface and atmosphere occupied by living organisms Ecosystem: community of living organisms in conjunction with non-living features of their environment Community: a group of people/organisms living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common Population: summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area and have the capability of interbreeding Organism: an individual animal, plant or single celled life form Organs: a part of an organism which is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function Tissues: any of the distinct types of material of which animals and plants are made consisting of specialised cells Cells: the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically consisting of cytoplasm and nucleus in membrane Organelles: a structure with specialized functions suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell Molecules: smallest particle in a chemical element, made of atoms held together by chemical bonds Eukaryotic cell: contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and DNA in chromosomes bound Prokaryotic cell: lack distinct cell nucleus DNA not organised into chromosomes Producers: autotrophic organism capable of producing complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules Consumers: obtains food from feeding on other organisms or organic matter due to lack of manufacturing ability; heterotroph Genes: unit of heredity which is transferred from parent to offspring and used to determine characteristics of offspring Adaptation: inherited trait with functional role in the life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection Evolution: the process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of earth Natural Selection: differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype Mutation: permanent alteration of nucleotide sequence of genome of an organism or virus Speciation: evolutionary process by which new reproductively isolated biological kinds, species, arise Science: a way of understanding the physical and natural world Inquiry: the act of asking for information Hypothesis: proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further explanation Theory: a system of ideas intended to explain something Independent variable: variable you have control over Dependent variable: variable you measure Control group: the group in an experiment who does not receive treatment
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Experimental group: group in experiment who does receive treatment 1 What are the common characteristics/properties of life?
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