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March 29, 2017
Psychological test: standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviorSample may not be representative of person Measures individual differences between people Two main categories of psychological tests: 1. Mental ability (aptitude, achievement) 2. Personality Psychological Testing
Intelligence tests: measure general mental ability Measure intellectual potentialAptitude tests: measure specific components of mental abilities (spelling, verbal reasoning, abstract reasoning, etc.) Achievement tests: measure a person’s previous learning on a specific subject (English, history, etc.)Mental Ability Tests
First modern psychological tests developed about 100 years ago Pioneers of psych testing: Sir Francis Galton Alfred Binet Lewis Terman David Wechsler Charles Spearman History of Intelligence Testing
British scholar, late 19thcentury, cousin of Darwin Believed intelligence to be hereditary, ignored effects of socioeconomic status Measured the sensory acuity of highly intelligent people Not predictive of school/professional success Began “nature vs. nurture” debate, bell curve for psych characteristics, correlation, percentile scores History: Sir Francis Galton
1904: Minister of Ed (France) asks Binet to devise a test to identify mentally subnormal children who could benefit from special ed 1905: 1st successful test of mental ability published by Binet and colleague Theodore Simon 1908: test revised with more fine-tuned age levels 1911: Test revised again to include older adults and adolescents Score reflected mental age: mental performance typical of child of that chronological (actual) age Believed intelligence was influenced by environment Feared that his test would be used to unfairly label children History: Alfred Binet
Adapted Binet’stestStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (1916) Created new age norms Incorporated IQ, which made it easier to compare children using same scale Terman was a eugenicist, proponent of segregation and compulsory sterilization Tested immigrants History: Lewis Terman
1939: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) First to place verbal and nonverbal tasks on equal footing Revised “IQ” so that it followed a normal distribution (bell curve) One standard deviation = 15 points Once published, his instruments took off History: David Wechsler
History: Charles Spearman Developed factor analysis: statistical procedure that shows which items are related or part of the same construct Concluded that there is one general intelligence based on the fact that those people who score high on one section of an intelligence test (i.e.