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PSYC 3339 – ClinicalCh. 9 OutlineIntellectual and Neuropsychological AssessmentIntelligence TestingIntelligence tests: psychological tests that measure a client’s intellectual ability.Intelligence: aptitude or intellect; the exact definition has long been a subject of debate among psychologists and may or may not include speed of mental processing, sensory capacity, abstract thinking, imagination, adaptability, capacity to learn through experience, memory, reasoning, or inhibition of instinct.Charles Spearman: a pioneer in the study of intelligence, who argued for the existence of “g,” a general intelligence thought to overlap with many particular abilities. o“g”: an abbreviation for general intelligence, as posited to exist by Charles Spearman and others (in contrast to “s,” or specific intelligence. Louis Thurstone: a pioneer in the study of intelligence who argued that intelligence should not be understood as a single, unified ability but as numerous distinct abilities that have little relationship to one another. Hierarchical Model of Intelligence: a model of intelligence in which specific abilities (“s”) play an important role but are all at least somewhat related to one another and to a global, overall, general intelligence (“g”).James Cattell: a leading figure in the study of intelligence who proposed separate fluid and crystallized intelligence. oFluid Intelligence: the ability to reason when faced with novel problems. oCrystallized Intelligence: the body of knowledge one has accumulated as a resultof life experiences.John Carroll: a contemporary leader in the study of intelligence who has proposed the three-stratum theory of intelligence. oThree-Stratum Theory of Intelligence: a contemporary theory that intelligence operates at three levels; a single “g” at the top, 8 broad factors immediately beneath “g” and more than 60 highly specific abilities beneath these broad factors.