Chapter 5 Concept Checks

Chapter 5 Concept Checks - Chapter 5 Concept Checks 1 If...

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Chapter 5 Concept Checks 1. If two parents cannot curl their tongues, what can you tell about their children? Answer: Both parents must lack the dominant gene that controls the ability to curl their tongues. Therefore, the can transmit only “noncurler” genes, and their children will be “noncurlers” also. 2. Suppose a father has color vision deficiency and a mother has two genes for normal color vision. What sort of color vision will their children have? Answer:The woman will pass a gene for normal color vision to all her children, so that they will all have normal color vision. The man will pass a gene for deficient color vision on his X chromosome, so his daughters will be carriers of color vision deficiency. 3. If our society changed so that it provided an equally good environment for all children, would the heritability of behaviors increase or decrease? Answer: Increase; Remember, heritability refers to how much of the difference among people is due to hereditary variation. 4. Suppose someone studies a group of adopted children who developed severe depression and finds that many of their biological parents had depression, whereas a few of their adopting parents did. One possible interpretation is that genetic factors influence depression more than family environment does. What is another interpretation? Answer: Perhaps biological mothers who are becoming depressed eat less healthy foods, drink more alcohol, or in some other way impair the prenatal environment of their babies. 5. Some people assume that if something is under genetic control, we can’t do anything about it. Cite an example that contradicts this idea. Answer: Phenylketonuria is a genetic condition that would cause mental retardation, but a special diet minimizes the problem. 6. Suppose we find that some gene that is widespread in the population appears to be disadvantageous. How can we explain the spread of the harmful gene? Answer: Three possibilities: The disadvantageous gene could have spread randomly within a small population, perhaps because individuals with this gene happened to be in a good location. The gene could produce a mild disadvantage but spread because it also produces other, advantageous effects. Also, a gene that is disadvantageous now might have been beneficial at a previous time. 7. Tranquilizers and anti-anxiety drugs increase activity of GABA synapses. Why should a pregnant woman avoid taking them? Answer: These drugs decrease brain stimulation, and neurons that fail to receive enough stimulation self-destruct. 8. Suppose an infant habituates to the sound ba , but when substituted with the sound bla , the infant fails to increase its sucking rate. What interpretation would be likely? Answer: Evidently, the infant does not hear a difference between ba and bla.
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