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Unformatted text preview: Tsar Nicholas II- 6 May 1868 to 16 July 1918 (execution by Bolsheviks) Nikolai Aleksandrovich succeeded his father as Czar of Russia in 1894. As Czar he directed the construction of the Trans-Siberian railroad, and joined the Allies in World War I. Years of popular discontent with his domestic and foreign policies led to the Russian Revolution, and Nicholas II abdicated on March 15, 1917. He and his entire family were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918, the last of the royal Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov line. King Leopold of Belgium- 1835-1909; King Leopold II is known today as one of the most brutal colonial rulers of the 19th century for his policies in central Africa. He succeeded his father to the throne in 1865 and early on made a reputation as a philanthropist. In 1876 Leopold formed the African International Association and financed an expedition by explorer Henry Morton Stanley to the Congo (1879-84). At a European conference in 1885 Leopold was named sovereign over the Congo Free State (later renamed Zaire and now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo). He then used slave labor and torture to extract raw materials (mostly rubber) and build his personal fortune. By 1908 criticism of his rule forced his withdrawal as sovereign and the region was annexed to Belgium. King Leopold’s Soliloquy- a 1905 pamphlet by Mark Twain . Its subject is King Léopold 's rule over the Congo Free State . A work of political satire harshly condemnatory of his actions, it ostensibly recounts Leopold speaking in his own defense. King Léopold raves madly about the good things that he says he has done for the people of the Congo Free State , including the disbursement of millions on religion and art. He says he had come to Congo with piety "oozing" from "every pore," that he had only wanted to convert the people to Christianity , that he had wanted to stop the slave trade. Léopold says that he did not take any of the government money, that he did not use the revenues as his personal "swag", and that such claims by the "meddlesome American missionaries", "frank British consuls", and "blabbing Belgian-born traitors" are wholly false. He asserts that for a King to be criticized as he has been is blasphemy — surely, under the rule of God , any King who was not doing God's will would not have been helped by God. Leopold claims that his critics only speak of what is unfavorable to him, such as the unfair taxes that he levied upon the people of the Congo, which caused starvation and the extermination of entire villages, but not of the fact that he had sent missionaries to the villages to convert them to Christianity . Nothing, he complains, can satisfy the English. Dinuzulu and the Boer mercenaries/Zulus In order to fight back against Zibhebhu, Dinuzulu recruited Boer mercenaries of his own, promising them land in return for their aid. These mercenaries called themselves "Dinuzulu's Volunteers", and were led by Louis Botha . Dinuzulu's Volunteers defeated Zibhebhu in...
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course HI 233 taught by Professor Silvermoon during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.
- Spring '08