Enlightenment, age of reason and philosophies.docx

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Running head: EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (ENLIGHTENMENT) Eighteenth Century (Enlightenment) Name Institutional Affiliation
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EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (ENLIGHTENMENT ) 1 Enlightenment, age of reason and philosophies The enlightenment period began in the 18 th century reaching its height in the 1750s; also described as the age of reason. Throughout this period, there was application of natural science methodologies on social institutions and human behavior. At this time, there was subjection of everything to reason as well, many arguments arose rallying for change and reformation. The enlightenment majored in Western Europe, particularly among the bourgeoisie and the aristocracy. The ideas of skepticism came into existence whereby individuals began questioning the existence of anything and knowing its identity with complete certainty. Two Uprisings: American and French Revolutions American Revolution was a war in the struggle for her independence against the British influencing political ideas. The Boston Massacre in 1770 that led to the killing of five colonists by the British soldiers angered them more. In 1773, the British parliament implemented the Tea Act that allowed British East India Company to monopolize the trade of tea in America. The sons and daughters of liberty were angry and mobilized the throwing into water 90,000 pounds of tea. The event popularly referred as the Boston Tea Party an event that highly contributed to the American Revolution. The French Revolution (1789-1790) led to the transformation of absolutist monarchy to constitutional monarchy. There was a debate on the role of the monarchy and the new aristocracy system on the representation of the common citizens and other main constitutional rights. The second stage was radical and involved the shedding of blood. The first stage left the issues concerning the economy and the responsibilities of the monarch unresolved. The basis of the political system was consensus that led to the writing of the constitution. The revolution did not
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EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (ENLIGHTENMENT ) 2 take place, as there was unlimited power for the radicals. There were expectations of the second phase of the revolution being more radical but it ended into a bloodbath. During the Reign of
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