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Chemistry 7 Monday, September 11, 2006

Chemistry 7 Monday, September 11, 2006 - Monday...

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Monday, September 11, 2006 Chemistry USEFULNESS 1. e- configures applicable to individual atoms rarely encountered when atoms bonded: configure changes 2. helpful in thinking about: a. how one atom bonds to another b. which e- are involved ATOMIC PROPERTIES How are valence e- related to physical properties of atoms? How do orbitals energies compare between atoms? Text: Sections 3.2-3.6 e-“feel” Closer lower more + to nucleus energy ATOMIC RADIUS 1. Valence e- farthest out a. location dictates size Figure 3.3 (ATOMIC RADII) 2. Across period a. Valence e- in same level b. Smaller = must feel greater nucleus change 3. Effective nuclear charge: Zeff a. What valence e- actually “feel” nuclear e- shielded by core e-. Figure 3.2 effective nuclear charge on Valence e- 4. Down group a. larger Zeff buy higher in (bigger size) orbital SEE TIFFANYS CHEMISTRY PAPER FOUNDATION 1. E needed to remain a e- Al+ 2. For e hold tightly single attracted to nucleus (easy to remove e-) form – charged cations
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Unformatted text preview: Monday, September 11, 2006 ELECTRONEGATIVITY (EN or X) 1. Ability of an atom attract e (in a covalent e- = high E SEE TIFFANYS CHEMISTRY PAPER Rank in size from largest to smallest S and Mg and Calcium 1 2 3 Rank in IE: N Ga As Rank in EN: S Br Cl Smallest Largest Size S Mg Ca IE Ga As N EN ?? ?? Cl ORBITALS AND ENERGY 1. As Z increase, E of the entire set of orbitals increase 2. Compose #1: as and C or 1s are Na 3. Comparison #2 a. Valence orbitals can diff. atoms smaller atoms = lower E valence orb i. 2s on Li or 3s on Na Smaller atoms = lower E valence orbital 4. Ionization e- to O (top) a. FIGURE 3.5 IF s ORBITAL E Lower E valence e- = higher IE 5. Electronegativity a. Figure 3.5 Figure 3.7 Attracted – (to open spot) Lower E open spot = higher EN GOALS • Explain how size, IE, EN and orbital E are related • Rank elements in size, IE, EN • Rank orbitals in E...
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