WK4ASSIGN.docx - ASTHMA 1 Asthma Management Walden University NURS 6521N ASTHMA 2 Asthma Management Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition

WK4ASSIGN.docx - ASTHMA 1 Asthma Management Walden...

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ASTHMA 1 Asthma Management Walden University NURS 6521N December 24, 2017
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ASTHMA 2 Asthma Management Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition nearly affecting nearly 10% of the population (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2013). In patients with asthma, the airway becomes inflammed and and begins a series of hyperresponsiveness after an exposure to allergens, viruses, or exercise (Doeing & Solway, 2013). Asthma affects the quality of life in those who are diagnosed. The purpose of this writing is to describe short-acting and long-acting asthma medications. Adverse effects of these medications and the imapct they may have on one’s life will also be explained. The stepwise approach to asthma management will be examined and illustrated on how it can improve the patient’s asthma and assist the practitioner in managing symptoms. Short-Acting Asthma Treatment Options There are two types of asthma treatment options, short-acting and long-acting. Short- acting, or quick-relief options include short-acting beta 2- agonist (SABA), anticholinergics, and systemic corticosteroids. These options are an excellent choice for acute exacerbations. SABA drugs do not relieve inflammation in the lungs but they are used for bronchodilation and protection from bronchoconstriction. SABA drugs have a peak effect of less than ten minutes. Side effects include increased heart rate, nervousness, anxety, and increased cardiac contractility (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Anticholinergenics are known to have an effect on the large airways. The rationale for this is that anticholinergenic drugs work with the autonomic control of the airway functions. Activation of the cholinergic system results in contraction of smooth muscles. These drugs represent a second option for short-term relief of asthma symptoms (Novelli, Malagrino, Dente,
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ASTHMA 3 & Paggiaro, 2012). The side effects include increased heart rate, dry mouth, blurred vision, and urinary retention if one has an enlarged prostate (The Asthma Center, n.d.-a). Systemic corticosteriods come in oral, intravenous, and intramuscular treatments. These drugs include dexamethasone and prednisone and they are are used to suppress inflammation during asthma exacerbations. They are used for moderate to severe asthma exacerbations or when the individual is unresponsive to SABA (Alangari, 2014). The onset is longer than four hours; however, these drugs are vital for speeding the recovery of relapses and preventing exacerbations (United States Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2007). Common side effects include sodium and water retention, hyperglycemia, and increased appetite (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Long-Term Asthma Treatment Options Long-term asthma medications assist with reducing inflammation in the respiratory tract, reduce exacerbations, and help the patient gain control of their symptoms. The drugs for long- term management include inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), mast cell stabilizers such as cromolyn sodium and nedocromil, immunomodulators, leukotriene modifiers, long-acting beta 2 -agonist (LABA), and methylxanthines.
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