Chemistry 12 Monday, September 25, 2006

Chemistry 12 Monday, September 25, 2006 - 2 Move accurate...

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Monday, September 25, 2006 Chemistry BONDING DETAILS hybridization combine orbitals new atomic on one atom orbitals (hybrids) covalent bonds combine orbitals on diff. atoms Bonding Details - What shaped orbitals result from combining atomic orbitals? - How does this effect the energies? Text: Sections 6.4-6.5 (first part) MIXING (ADDING TOGETHER) ORBITALS 1. # orbitals that result = # atomic orbitals (ao’s) used 2. adding math functions (orbitals) a. they have + and – valves b. result : +, -, or cancleout 3. Mix two orbitals a. Two combos: #1 + #2 #1 - #2 Mix three or more orbitals Various combos (+ and -) Various weighting factors
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Monday, September 25, 2006 FORMING HYBRID ORBITALS 1. Mix a.o’s from the same atom ex. sp hybrids s + p + = s – p = s + (-p) + = Two sp hybrids directed 180 degrees Ex. sp 2 hybrids Three combos – 120 degrees apart FORMING σ – MOLECULAR ORBITALS (MO) 1. Mix orbitals from diff atoms Ex. H create an mo –spans entire molecule move e- density in the middle nuclei attracted toward middle “bonding m.o.” max e- density along intermolecular axis o-bonding – m.o.
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Unformatted text preview: 2. Move accurate picture a. Use 1s e- density 3. Can form σ – bond with s and p a.o’s Ex.H2, F2, HF = m.o. Fig. 6.10 Pg 6 -11 Monday, September 25, 2006 FORMING TR – M.O.’s 1. Mix p orbitals p (or’d) orbitals that are parallel to one another + = • e- density greed between nuclei • but above and below internuclear axis II bonding M.O. – 3. single bond – 1 σ Double bond – 1 σ 1 π Triple bond – 1 σ 2 π H O # of bonds = 1 H C C O H # of σ bonds = 7 H C 3 H 4 H H C C C H H sp 2 sp sp 2 1 2 1 Monday, September 25, 2006 MO’s of MULTI- ATOM SYSTEMS 1. ex. π- bonding in SO2 resonance with π-bond and oxygen love pair (4 e-) O S O O S O 2. mix one p orbital from each atom diff +/- combos diff weighting E Delocalized GOALS • Draw bonding combos for mixing two orbitals (σ or π) • Determine the # of σ and π bonds from Lewis structures • Describe resonance in terms of delocalized bonding...
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Chemistry 12 Monday, September 25, 2006 - 2 Move accurate...

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