Bring to exam.docx - Article 1 Management Research as a...

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Article 1: Management Research as a Design Science: Articulating the Research Product of Mode 2 Knowledge Production in Management By Van Aken (2005) These articles about the tension between “traditional (explanatory) science” and “design science”, notions of technological rules, design propositions, design exemplars, and how to develop design knowledge: the CIMO logic. A gap between theory and practice exists. This important because “ we are concerned about the usefulness of scientific research for helping managers to improve effectiveness in their organizations .” Proposals to use more Mode 2 knowledge because previous discussions are mainly focused on research itself, less on outcomes. Technology rules can be seen as solution-oriented knowledge (management theory), while also description-oriented knowledge (organization theory) exists, known as Mode 1 . Mode 2 knowledge production is presented to bridge the gap concerning relevance and satisfy the increasing need for solving the practical part as methods and techniques become more sophisticated. Three approaches to improve the relevance of academic management research: (1) improving communication with practitioners, (2) intensify the research-practitioners relationship so that researchers get a better understanding of field problems, their possible solutions, needs practitioners, and (3) take a hard look at the nature of the research product itself (which is the topic of the article) . The suggestion is more prescriptive research (solution or design- oriented). Basic idea is to call for more Mode 2 research in management by articulating the nature of the resulting Management Theory and its use in actual management practice. It should be field-tested (in the intended field of application) and grounded (knowing why the intervention or artefacts give the desired outcome). Choosing the right solution concept and using it as a design exemplar to design a specific variation of it presumes a considerable competence on the part of practitioners. A key element of a technological rule resulting from academic research is justification . Obtained through 1 Organization Design; Rick Been, S3120449
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testing the rule in its intended context. According to Pawson and Tilley: mechanism + context = outcome. Moreover, involving middle management contributes to higher performance. They can provide sound input to the decision-making process through its more immediate knowledge of the opportunities and threats facing the company. Moreover, it increases the level of consensus on and understanding of the new strategy, which facilitates implementation. The article suggest to use design exemplars instead of instructions. Practitioners have to choose a technological rule (solution concept) for their organizational problem and then translate it and design a specific variant for their own situation. Technological rule can be seen as a design proposition. However, results are still design propositions as long as they have not been field tested. Field testing can support the conversion of applicable descriptive knowledge
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