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Chemistry 30 Friday, November 10, 2006

Chemistry 30 Friday, November 10, 2006 - ACIDS IN WATER 1...

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Friday, November 10, 2006 Chemistry STRENGTH How do we think about acid/base reactions in water? What happens when you put an acid or base in water? TEXT: Parts of Sections 12.2-12.3, 12.5-12.8 PROTON TRANSFER REACTIONS 1. Arrhenius acids a. Dissociate to ions i. HCl = H 1+ + Cl 1- 2. Bronsted Acids a. React with bases via “H 1+ transfer” i. HCl + H 2 O = Cl 1- + H3O 1+ Acid: H 1+ donor Contains H with δ+ Base: H 1+ accepter Must have lone pair 3. Easy to predict products a. Products are conjugates of reactants b. Differ by 1 H, and 1 unit of charge Acid Conjugate Base HCl Cl 1- HC 2 H 3 O 2 C 2 H 3 O 2 1- H 2 SO 4 HSO 4 1- H 2 0 OH 1- Base Conjugate Acid Cl 1- HCl NH 3 NH 4 1+ S 2- HS 1- H 2 O H 3 O 1+ c. careful: some are amphiprotic i. both acid and base Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base H 3 PO 4 H 2 PO 4 1- HPO 4 2-
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Friday, November 10, 2006 4. Acids have H bonded to an electronegative atom HNO 3 HC 2 H 3 O 2 O N O H H O O H C C O H H C not very EN; those H’s not involved in H1+ transfer Usually acidic H’s written first in the formula 5. “ate” ions form “ic” acids NO 3 1- HNO 3 NAMING REQUIREMENT ON THE INTERNET Nitric acid “ite” anions form “ous” acids
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Unformatted text preview: ACIDS IN WATER 1. dissolving acids in water a. react with water i. to form H 3 O 1+ (hydronium) HA + H 2 O = A 1-+ H 3 O 1+ [A 1-][H 3 O 1+ ] K a = [HA] If K a > 1 : Extensive • Strong acid If K a < 1 : Not Extensive • Weak Acid 2. TABLE 12.3 a. Conjugate pairs b. Line near top of table: i. Above 1. Strong Acids (Non-Basic) ii. Below 1. Weak Acids c. Weaker going down Friday, November 10, 2006 BASES IN WATER 1. Dissolving bases in water a. React with water to from OH 1-NH 3 + H 2 O = NH 4 1+ + OH 1-[NH 4 1+ ][HO 1-] K a = [NH 3 ] 3. TABLE 12.3 a. Line near bottom of table i. Below 1. Strong Bases (Non-Acidic) ii. Above 1. Weak Bases b. Weaker going up o Stronger bases across from weaker acids GOALS • Identify conjugates acid and bases • Names = formulas of oxo-acids and there basic forms • Write reactions of acids & bases with water • Navigate Table12.3...
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