Midterm study guide.docx - MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Hypothesis...

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MIDTERM STUDY GUIDEHypothesis- aquestion about how or why something happens will propose a tentative explanation to explain the phenomenon. oCan be tested/proven and has to be validityo“if…then” statement William James (1842-1910)oFirst American psychologist oFunctionalism: how mental activities helped an orgaism fir into its environment Operation of whole mind rather than individual parts Behaviorism: shifting focus from mind to behavior—approach focuses on controlling behavior oJohn B Watson oIvan Pavlov- Classical conditioning oSkinner- behavior is affected by consequencesSkinner boxoMaslow & Rodgers- humanismMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Abraham Maslow- as long as basic needs necessary for survival were met, higher needs would begin to motivate behavior oSelf actualization (inner fulfillment)Never actually met in life until death oEsteem (self worth, accomplishment, confidence)oSocial (family, friendship, intimacy, belonging) oSecurity (safety, employment, assets) oPhysiological (food, water, shelter, warmth) Psychology as Social Science: how we interact with and relate to others oBehaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, resolving interpersonal conflicts oGerman soldiers giving lethal shocks and okay with itCorrelation: researchers can speak to important relationships that might exist between two or more variables of interest oCannot be used to make claims abt cause and effect oOnly way is to PREFORM AN EXPERIMENTCorrelation Coefficient: # from -1 to +1 that indicates strength and direction of relation (r) o

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