Chapter 9 Notes, Chem.pdf - Gilbert Kirss Foster Chapter 9...

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11/3/20141ChapterGilbert Kirss FosterThermochemistryEnergy Changes in Chemical Reactions9© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.9.1Energy as a Reactant or Product9.2Transferring Heat and Doing Work9.3Enthalpy and Enthalpy Changes9.4 Heating Curves and Heat Capacity9.5Heats of Reaction and Calorimetry9.6Hess’s Law and Standard Heats of Reactions9.7Heats of Reactions from Heats of Formation andBond Energies9.8 Applications2Chapter Outline© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.DefinitionsThermodynamics:The study of energy and its transformationThermochemistry:The study of the relation between chemical reactions and changes in energyThermochemical equation:2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O() + energyThermochemical Equilibrium: Acondition in which temperature is uniform throughout a material3
11/3/20142© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.Energy of Chemical Reactions4© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.Law of Conservation of Energy:Energy cannot be created or destroyedIt can be converted from one form to anotherPotential energy kinetic energyChemical energy heat5First Law of Thermodynamics© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.System:The part of the universe that is the focus of a thermodynamic studyIsolated / open / closedSurroundings:Everything in the universe that is not part of the systemUniverse = System + Surroundings6Terminology
11/3/20143© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.Internal Energy:State Function: Depends only on total KE and PE of all components of the systemE= EfinalEinitialE= q+ wE= change in system’s internal energyq= heat or thermal energy, w = work7Internal Energy© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.Energy Flow Diagrams 8© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.9
11/3/20144© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.Types of Molecular MotionTypes of molecular motiona) translationalb) rotationalc) vibrational10© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.9.1Energy as a Reactant or Product9.2Transferring Heat and Doing Work9.3Enthalpy and Enthalpy Changes9.4 Heating Curves and Heat Capacity9.5Heats of Reaction and Calorimetry9.6Hess’s Law and Standard Heats of Reactions9.7Heats of Reactions from Heats of Formation and Bond Energies9.8 Applications11Chapter Outline© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.Types of Systems12
11/3/20145© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.Exothermicprocess: Heat flows out ofsystem to surroundings (q< 0)Endothermicprocess: Heat flows into system from surroundings(q> 0)13Heat Flow© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.Work:w= PVwhere P= pressure, V= change in volumeWork done by the system = energy lost by the system, w< 0Example: Expansion of a gasE= q+ w= q+ (PV) = qPV14P-VWork© 2014 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.

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