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GasesThe Ideal Gas LawBoundless Chemistry
The Ideal Gas EquationThe ideal gas equation is given by.LEARNING OBJECTIVESApply the ideal gas law to solve problems in chemistryKEY TAKEAWAYSKey PointsAn ideal gas exhibits no attractive forces between particles.In the ideal gas equation, both pressure and volume are directly proportionalto temperature.Key Termsideal gas constant: R = 8.3145 J·mol-1·K-1ideal gas: a gas whose particles exhibit no attractive interactions whatsoever;at high temperatures and low pressures, gases behave close to ideallykinetic energy: the energy possessed by an object because of its motion; inKinetic Gas Theory, the kinetic energy of gas particles is dependent upontemperature onlyKinetic Theory and Ideal GasesAll gases are modeled on the assumptions put forth by the Kinetic Theory of Matter, whichassumes that all matter is made up of particles (i.e. atoms or molecules); there are spacesPV=nRT
between these particles, and attractive forces become stronger as the particles converge.Particles are in constant, random motion, and they collide with one another and the walls of thecontainer in which they are enclosed. Each particle has an inherent kinetic energy that isdependent upon temperature only.Translational motion of helium: Real gases do not always behave according to the ideal modelunder certain conditions, such as high pressure. Here, the size of helium atoms relative to theirspacing is shown to scale under 1,950 atmospheres of pressure.A gas is considered ideal if its particles are so far apart that they do not exert any attractiveforces upon one another. In real life, there is no such thing as a truly ideal gas, but at hightemperatures and low pressures (conditions in which individual particles will be moving very
quickly and be very far apart from one another so that their interaction is almost zero), gasesbehave close to ideally; this is why the Ideal Gas Law is such a useful approximation.Ideal Gas Law IntroductionIdeal Gas Law Introduction: Discusses the ideal gas lawPV=nRT, and how you use thedifferent values forR: 0.0821, 8.31, and 62.4.Ideal Gas Law EquationThe Ideal Gas Equation is given by:The four variables represent four different properties of a gas:Pressure (P), often measured in atmospheres (atm), kilopascals (kPa), or millimetersmercury/torr (mm Hg, torr)Volume (V), given in litersNumber of moles of gas (n)Temperature of the gas (T) measured in degrees Kelvin (K)PV=nRT
Ris the ideal gas constant, which takes on different forms depending on which units are in use.The three most common formulations ofRare given by: