9-7 and 9-10

9-7 and 9-10 - Valence electrons The periodicity of the...

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The periodicity of the chemical properties results from the periodicity in the valence electron configurations. Valence electrons Section 3.1 In something closer to English: As one moves across a row of the periodic table, the chemical properties of each element change gradually. The changes are the result of changes in the number of valence electrons.
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Zeff = Z - σ Attraction to nucleus felt by electron # protons in nucleus Shielding constant Ze ff ~ Z σ & Effective Nuclear Charge σ inn er σ outers hell Section 3.2
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Ze ff ~ Z - inner + σ outershell 29 Zeff Z ~ H: 1 p+ & 1st e- Zef f Z ~ He: 2 p+ & 2 nd e- σ outers hell - Zef f Z ~ Li: 3 p+ & 3 rd e- σ inn er - Ze ff Z ~ Be: 4 p+ & 4 th e- ( σ inner + σ outershell 29 - Ze ff Z ~ B: 5 p+ & 5 th e- ( σ inner + σ outershell 29 - Ze ff Z ~ C: 6 p+ & 6 th e- ( σ inner + σ outershell 29 - Ze ff Z ~ N: 7 p+ & 7 th e- ( σ inner + σ outershell 29 - Ze ff Z ~ O: 8 p+ & 8 th e- ( σ inner + σ outershell 29 - Ze ff Z ~ F: 9 p+ & 9 th e- ( σ inner + σ outershell 29 - Ze Z ~ Ne: 10 p+ & 10 th e- ( σ inner + σ outershell 29 - Ze Z ~ Na: 11 p+ & 11 th e- - 1 1 1.7 1.3 2.0 2.6 3.3 3.9 4.6 5.2 5.9 2.2 Section 3.2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 + + + + + + + + + + + 11
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Ze ff ~ Z - inner + σ outershell 29 1 Section 3.2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 + + + + + + + + + + + 11 Zeff =10.7 Zeff =2.2
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Zeff Trends smallest largest Non- metals Section 3.2
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The Periodic Table and Atomic Size, Orbital Energy, Electronegativity and Ionization Energy Energy ~ - Z2e ff n 2 n 2 Radius (atomic size) Ze ff ~ Electronegativity ~ + Z2e ff n 2 Ionization Energy ~ + Z2e ff n 2
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Metals Non- metals Summary Small High EN (except noble gas) High IE Large Low EN Low IE
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9-7 and 9-10 - Valence electrons The periodicity of the...

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