Lesson Eleven Existentialism Writers and Terms .docx -...

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Jean-Paul Sartre:One of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism. Sartre's main idea of existentialism is that people, as humans, are "condemned to be free.”The theory relies upon his position that there is no creator, and is illustrated using the example of the paper cutter. Sartre says that if one considered a paper cutter, one would assume that the creator would havehad a plan for it: an essence. Sartre said that human beings have no essence before their existence because there is no Creator. Thus, "existence precedes essence.”This forms the basis for his assertion that because one cannot explain one's own actions and behavior by referencing any specific human nature, they are necessarily fully responsible for those actions. "We are left alone, without excuse." "We can act without being determined by our past which is always separated from us."Friedrich Nietzsche:Considered the founder of Nihilism. His writings questioned the value andobjectivity of truth and how life should be interpreted. Albert Camus:Existentialist writer. Camus actively challenged and set himself apart from the existentialist motto that being precedes essence. Ultimately, against Sartre in particular and existentialists in general, he clings to his instinctive belief in a common human nature. In his view human existence necessarily includes an essential core element of dignity and value, and

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