MICROBIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY Green is pre 2002 Yellow is post 2002 USC messed up the following questions: 1981Q61 – wrong – should be ‘(c) fibroblasts & endothelial cells’ 1981Q68 – wrong – should be ‘basophils & mast cells’, not ‘eosinophils & mast cells’ Questions to Find Which of the following affects the widest organ range? Herpes, rubella, varicella, Moluscam m. CELLS/ORGANELLES Cell parts: Mitochondrion – double MB structure responsible for cellular metabolism – powerhouse of the cell Nucleus – controls synthetic activities and stores genetic information Ribosome – site of mRNA attachment and amino acid assembly, protein synthesis Endoplasmic reticulum – functions in intracellular transportation Gogli apparatus/complex – composed of membranous sacs – involved in production of large CHO molecules & lysosomes Lysosome – organelle contains hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion Membrane bag containing digestive enzymes Cellular food digestion – lysosome MB fuses w/ MB of food vacuole & squirts the enzymes inside Digested food diffuses through the vacuole MB to enter the cell to be used for energy or growth Lysosome MB keeps the cell iself from being digested Involved mostly in cells that like to phagocytose Involved in autolytic and digestive processes Formed when the Golgi complex packages up an especially large vesicle of digestive enzyme proteins Phagosome – vesicle that forms around a particle (bacterial or other) w/in the phagocyte that engulfed it Then separates from the cell MB & fuses w/ lysozome to receive contents This coupling forms phagolysosomes in which digestion of the engulfed particle occurs Microbodies: Contain catalase Bounded by a single MB Compartments specialized for specific metabolic pathways Similar in function to lysosomes, but are smaller & isolate metabolic reactions involving H 2 O 2 Two general families: Peroxisomes : transfer H 2 to O 2 , producing H 2 O 2 – generally not found in plants 1
Glyoxysomes: common in fat-storing tissues of the germinating seeds of plants Contain enzymes that convert fats to sugar to make the energy stored in the oils of the seed available Inclusions – transitory, non-living metabolic byproducts found in the cytoplasm of the cell May appear as fat droplets, CHO accumulations, or engulfed foreign matter. The cell cycle 1) Labile cells (GI tract, blood cells) Described as parenchymal cells that are normally found in the G 0 phase that can be stimulated to enter the G 1 Undergo continuous replication, and the interval between two consecutive mitoses is designated as the cell cycle After division, the cells enter a gap phase (G1), in which they pursue their own specialized activities
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- Winter '20