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Chapter 3 Textbook Notes .docx - NEUR 2202 Chapter 3...

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NEUR 2202Chapter 3 Textbook NotesNeurogenesis and Migration3.1 The Same gene may play a role in many different developmental eventsPleiotropy – occurs when one gene influences many different traits (especially when traits seemunrelated)Ex. Sonic hedgehog helps with floor plate, motor neuron differentiation and optic cupsWith respect to gene influences, it’s the normRedundancy – several genes contribute to producing a single traitEx. Several proteins from dorsal lip of blastopore organize induction of neural plateLoss of one of these genes only has a modest effect3.2 The developing brain generates neurons at a tremendous rateNeural tube developmentMitotic figures always seen next to the interior surface of the tube (lumen)In adult brains, mitotic figures are found almost exclusively lining the ventricular zoneAs the neural tube grows in size, the cells remain attached to both sides and shuttle backand forth within the cytoplasm, only dividing when near the ventricular surfaceThese cells divide symmetrically if both daughter cells remain attached to either side andasymmetrically when one daughter cells migrates away from ventricular zoneoWhen enough cells detach, they accumulate near pial surface to form marginalzoneoThe ones that remain attached become very stretched and help in neuronalmigration (radial glia)oOther release hold but stay in ventricular zone and are capable of mitosisthroughout life (germinal zone – providing material for future development)Neurogenesis – process of dividing to produce cells that differentiate into neuronsNot neurons dividing to new neurons since neurons don’t normally divideNonneuronal cells in germinal zone dividing to produce daughter cells that will migrateand change into neurons

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