100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 12 out of 92 pages.
BOTANY BASICSDavid ShiblesMaster Gardener CoordinatorPolk County Cooperative ExtensionAdapted from Botany Basics by Dr. Ann Marie VanDerZanden, Extension Master Gardener Coordinator, Oregon State University
THE PLANT WORLDThe plant world is extremely diverse, ranging from one celled algae to huge oaks and sequoias.It contains plants like mushrooms which have no green color.In our gardens we find lichens and mosses, which are green plants, but have no true roots, no leaves and no flowers.Many of us grow ferns in our gardens. They are green plants with true leaves and roots, but no flowers.
Finally there are the flowering or seed bearing plants, which make up the vast majority of plants on earth. These are the plants that we wish to discuss today.
SEED PLANTS-SpermatophytaThe seed plants are those which produce seeds, each containing an embryo (a minute, inactive plant) that germinates (begins to grow) under favorable conditions.Seed bearing plants have true leaves, stems, roots and vascular tissue.They consist of two classes-the Gymnospermae and Angiospermae
Gymnospermae-gymnospermsAll gymnosperms are woody, perennial, and with few exceptions evergreen. The reproductive organs are borne in structures called catkins or in cones.Their leaves may be fern-like, scale-like, strap-shaped, or needle shaped. This group is represented primarily by cone bearing trees (conifers) and palm-like plants called cycads.Members of this group are cypress, cycads, ginkgo, pine and cedars, podocarpus, yews and torreya.
AngiospermaeThe angiosperms include those groups which have flowers and seeds always protected by a fruit.They are broken down into two main groups the Monocotyledoncae and the Dicotyledoncae.These divisions are determined by the number of cotyledons or “seed leaves” found in the seed.
MONOCOTS1. Have one seed leaf.2. Xylem and phloem are paired in bundlesand are dispersed throughout the stem.3. The floral parts are usually in multiplesof three.4. The leaves often have parallel veins.
DICOTS1. Have two seed leaves.2. The xylem and phloem are inside the stem.The ring of phloem is near the bark; thexylem forms the inner ring.3. The floral parts are usually in multiples offour or five.4. The leaves are usually net veined.
PLANT LIFE CYCLES1. Annuals-completes its full life cycle in oneyear. Winter and summer annuals. Summerannuals include many flowers, crabgrass andspurge. Winter annuals include annual blue-grass and henbit.
2. Biennials-produce vegetative the firstyear, then produces seed the seconds year.Examples are Swiss chard, carrots, beets.Weeds include cudweed and bull thistle.
3. PERENNIALS - plants that live 2 years or more and are divided into herbaceous and woody perennials.-Herbaceous perennials have soft nonwoodystems that generally die back to the ground each winter if the temperature is cold enough and new stems grow from the plants crown in the spring. Or they may just keep on growing.