88131911773.pdf - BOTANY BASICS David Shibles Master Gardener Coordinator Polk County Cooperative Extension Adapted from Botany Basics by Dr Ann Marie

88131911773.pdf - BOTANY BASICS David Shibles Master...

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BOTANY BASICS David Shibles Master Gardener Coordinator Polk County Cooperative Extension Adapted from Botany Basics by Dr. Ann Marie VanDerZanden, Extension Master Gardener Coordinator, Oregon State University
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THE PLANT WORLD The plant world is extremely diverse, ranging from one celled algae to huge oaks and sequoias. It contains plants like mushrooms which have no green color. In our gardens we find lichens and mosses, which are green plants, but have no true roots, no leaves and no flowers. Many of us grow ferns in our gardens. They are green plants with true leaves and roots, but no flowers.
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Finally there are the flowering or seed bearing plants, which make up the vast majority of plants on earth. These are the plants that we wish to discuss today.
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SEED PLANTS-Spermatophyta The seed plants are those which produce seeds, each containing an embryo (a minute, inactive plant) that germinates (begins to grow) under favorable conditions. Seed bearing plants have true leaves, stems, roots and vascular tissue. They consist of two classes-the Gymnospermae and Angiospermae
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Gymnospermae-gymnosperms All gymnosperms are woody, perennial, and with few exceptions evergreen. The reproductive organs are borne in structures called catkins or in cones. Their leaves may be fern-like, scale-like, strap-shaped, or needle shaped. This group is represented primarily by cone bearing trees (conifers) and palm-like plants called cycads. Members of this group are cypress, cycads, ginkgo, pine and cedars, podocarpus, yews and torreya.
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Angiospermae The angiosperms include those groups which have flowers and seeds always protected by a fruit. They are broken down into two main groups the Monocotyledoncae and the Dicotyledoncae. These divisions are determined by the number of cotyledons or “seed leaves” found in the seed.
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MONOCOTS 1. Have one seed leaf. 2. Xylem and phloem are paired in bundles and are dispersed throughout the stem. 3. The floral parts are usually in multiples of three. 4. The leaves often have parallel veins .
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DICOTS 1. Have two seed leaves. 2. The xylem and phloem are inside the stem. The ring of phloem is near the bark; the xylem forms the inner ring. 3. The floral parts are usually in multiples of four or five. 4. The leaves are usually net veined.
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PLANT LIFE CYCLES 1. Annuals-completes its full life cycle in one year. Winter and summer annuals. Summer annuals include many flowers, crabgrass and spurge. Winter annuals include annual blue- grass and henbit.
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2. Biennials-produce vegetative the first year, then produces seed the seconds year. Examples are Swiss chard, carrots, beets. Weeds include cudweed and bull thistle.
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3. PERENNIALS - plants that live 2 years or more and are divided into herbaceous and woody perennials. - Herbaceous perennials have soft nonwoody stems that generally die back to the ground each winter if the temperature is cold enough and new stems grow from the plants crown in the spring. Or they may just keep on growing.
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