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The Journal of Special Education 2017, Vol. 50(4) 215–226 © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2016 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0022466916649164 journalofspecialeducation.sagepub.com Article Social stories (SS) and video modeling (VM) are two inter- ventions that are used to teach various skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Gray (2002) defined SS as short stories used to help individuals with ASD under- stand complex social situations. They are individualized narratives, in which the expectations from the child are indicated, the appropriate behavior in a certain social situa- tion is described, and the information about the child is shared (Styles, 2011). They are either directly read by the child or someone reads them to the child; then the child is expected to perform the behavior in a related social context. SS have been used for teaching social interaction and com- munication skills (Adams, Gouvousis, VanLue, & Waldron, 2004; Balcik & Tekinarslan, 2012; Delano & Snell, 2006; Hanley-Hochdorfer, Bray, Thomas, Kehle, & Elinoff, 2010; Olçay-Gül & Tekin-Iftar, 2016; Sansosti, Powell-Smith, & Kincaid, 2004; Scattone, Tingstrom, & Wilczynski, 2006; Thiemann & Goldstein, 2001), safety skills (Suzer, 2015), and play skills (Barry & Burlew, 2004; Kourassanis, Jones, & Fienup, 2015) to individuals with autism across various age groups. VM has its roots in Bandura’s (1977) Social Learning Theory. This theory proposed that human behavior is pri- marily learned by observing and/or modeling others. Modeling is defined as a process by which a model—live, recorded, and/or imagined—demonstrates behavior that can be imitated by the learner (Corbett & Abdullah, 2005; Delano, 2007). VM intervention combines modeling and video demonstration as visual cues (Bellini & Akullian, 2007). The individual watches the model while practicing the target behaviors and then is asked to perform these behaviors (Bellini & Akullian, 2007; Delano, 2007; Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2003). It is used to change the behavior of the individual or to teach new behaviors. In VM, the target behavior can be modeled by the individual himself, by an adult model, or by a peer model (Sigafoos, O’Reilly, & De La Cruz, 2007). It has been effectively used to teach a variety of skills to children with ASD such as social skills (Charlop, Dennis, Carpenter, & Greenberg, 2010; MacDonald, Sacramone, Mansfield, Wiltz, & Ahearn, 2009; Mason, Rispoli, Ganz, Boles, & Orr, 2012; Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2003, 2004, 2007; Reagon, Higbee, & Endicott, 2006), play skills (Besler, 2015; MacDonald et al., 2009; Ozen, Batu, & Birkan, 2012; Paterson & Arco, 2007; Sani- Bozkurt & Ozen, 2015), vocational skills (Kellems, 2010), 649164 SED XX X 10.1177/0022466916649164The Journal of Special Education Acar et al. research-article 2016 1 Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey 2 Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey Corresponding Author: Elif Tekin-Iftar, Engelliler Arastirma Enstitusu, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey.

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