CHAPTER 22:THE Ordeal of ReconstructionThe Problems of PeaceKnow:Reconstruction - The period when the Southern states re entered the union and therebuild of the south.1."Dismal indeed was the picture presented by the war-wracked South when the rattle ofmusketry faded."Explain.Despite the North winning the Civil War, the South had collapsed. Cities were destroyed, banksand businesses closed, factories were dormant, the transportation system had been destroyed bySherman’s rampage of destruction, an agricultural profits were practically crippled as theslave-labor system ended with the Emancipation Proclamation and the planter aristocrats weredestitute. While radical Southerners still believed in the cause for secession, a new age ofreconstruction was making its way into the American timeline.Freedmen Define FreedomKnow:Exodusters - 25,000 free blacks that searched for opportunity in the south.American Methodist Episcopal Church - Had 400,000 members after the first decade afterbeing formed. It was a black church of newly freed slaves.American Missionary Association - volunteered to educate the free blacks in the south.Many white women were party of this.2. How did African-Americans respond to emancipation in the decade following the war?
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went to find their new freedoms. Some joined Union troops to pillage the possessions of theirmasters and even lashed former masters. However, many blacks were suspicious and uncertainabout the new emancipation, which led them to test their new freedoms and search for newopportunities to grow and enjoy life. For example, “exodusters” were some 25,000 blacks, whomoved from Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi westward to Kansas from 1878 to 1880. Blacksalso formed strong communities through churches, which led to the great start of the AmericanMethodist Episcopal Church at 400,000 members during its first decade. In terms of education,since many blacks were not educated enough to begin educational institutions, the AmericanMissionary Association sent North white women to volunteer as teachers.The Freedmen's BureauKnow:Freedmen's Bureau - it was a program to provide aid for free blacks and southernpeople in need.General Oliver O. Howard - The leader of the Freedmen's Bureau3. Assess the effectiveness of the Freedmen's Bureau.The Freedmen’s Bureau served to assist the freedmen in achieving proper self-sufficiency in thenew world of opportunity. On paper, it was intended to be a primitive welfare agency, providingfood, clothing, medical care, and education to freedmen and white refugees. Oliver O. Howardled this bureau and later served as the president of Howard University in Washington. Thebureau taught around 200,000 blacks how to read and provided them with a general education.