Qualitative Research Methods - Hayden.ppt

Qualitative Research Methods - Hayden.ppt - Qualitative...

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Unformatted text preview: Qualitative Research Methods Mary H. Hayden, PhD NCAR Summer WAS*IS July 20, 2006 Presentation Outline Distinguishing qualitative and quantitative approaches Qualitative methods – Types of qualitative methods Advantages vs. Disadvantages Real World Examples Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Qualitative Quantitative (Usually) Non-probability based sample Typically a probability-based sample Non-generalizable Generalizable Answers Why? How? Answers How many? When? Where? Formative, earlier phases Tests hypotheses, latter phases Data are “rich” and timeconsuming to analyze Data are more efficient, but may miss contextual detail Design may emerge as study unfolds Design decided in advance Researcher IS the instrument Various tools, instruments employed Qualitative “vs.” Quantitative? Research question guides the choice Choice of methods is situational Complementary Research more complete with both Each requires resources and time Can be amended for rapid analysis Types of qualitative methods Interviews Informal – researcher is required to recollect discussion Unstructured – e.g. ethnographic interviewing – researcher allows interview to proceed at respondent’s pace and subjects to vary by interviewee (to an extent) Semi-structured – researcher uses an interview guide Structured – researcher uses identical stimuli and adheres to interview schedule Semi-structured Interviews Focus Groups Recruited to discuss particular topic One focus group is ONE unit of analysis Complement surveys – often the 1st step in tapping critical questions to be used in a survey Identify why people feel certain way and elucidate steps in their decision-making process Focus Group Methods Ideal size: 6 – 12 people and a moderator/note taker Series of groups is necessary for validity Homogeneity and anonymity in selection of groups people may open up with others who are perceived to think along similar lines AND whom they may never see again Focus Group Methods, cont. Often segment according to expected meaningful differences (e.g. disease status, gender…) Running a focus group – fine line between leading too much and not getting people to contribute Important to keep discussion on topic w/o shutting people down No right or wrong answers Focus Group Methods, cont. Coding/Analyzing Tapes are usually transcribed verbatim Text is sorted into emergent themes by at least 2 researchers to ensure validity using pile-sort method or computerized version such as CDC’s EasyText (free!) Themes are compared with field notes taken by second researcher Focus Group Methods, cont. Thematic coding factors: 1. Frequency – number of times something is mentioned 2. Specificity – details 3. Emotion – enthusiasm, passion, etc. in responses 4. Extensiveness – how many different people said something Structured Interviews Questionnaires Three methods: Face-to-face interviews 2. Self-administered questionnaires 3. Telephone interviews 1. Face-to-Face Interviews (and intercept interviews) Advantages: Can be used with respondents who wouldn’t be able to provide information in another format – bedridden, illiterate, etc. Researcher can elicit more in-depth response or fill in information if participant doesn’t understand the question Different data collection techniques – openended questions, visual aids, etc. Certainty about who answered the questions Face-to-Face Interviews, cont. Disadvantages: Intrusive and reactive Cost time and money Difficult to locate respondents for callbacks Self Administered Questionnaires Advantages: Post Office locates participants Everybody gets the same questions Researcher can ask more complex questions No response effect (willing to divulge more info w/o face-to-face contact; less likely to try to impress interviewer Can be computer-based Self Administered Questionnaires, cont. Disadvantages: No control over participant interpretation Low response rates Uncertainty about who actually filled out the questionnaire Useless with non-literate, illiterate populations (same problem with English language sampling) or hard-to-reach populations Telephone Interviews Advantages: Combo of face-to-face personal quality with impersonal self-administered questionnaires Inexpensive and convenient (maybe) Safe for interviewers Telephone Interviews, cont. Disadvantages: Changing demographics – more cell phones? May miss certain population segments Survey must be short or people will hang up “No Call Lists” presenting increasing challenge Focus Groups vs. Surveys Surveys offer quantitative measurements based on a representative sample Focus groups offer content insight – the why of what people think Real World Examples West Nile Virus (WNV) focus group research in CO in 2003 11 semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted Groups were recruited through community gatekeepers and composed of participants from senior centers, health departments, neighborhood and volunteer organizations and local businesses Purpose was to explore and contextualize use/non-use of repellent and KAP around WNV and mosquitoes in CO Real World Examples WNV in Colorado – Selected results CO residents didn’t perceive mosquitoes to be a problem in the “high plains” The high proportion of WNV Fever cases diagnosed in some areas led to perception that “everyone was sick” and higher levels of concern Younger people wanted to get infected before risk of neuroinvasive disease increased Residents perceived that media overplayed the issue Real World Examples Border Research WNV focus group research in Imperial Valley along MX/CA border in 2004 WNV focus group research in Tijuana/San Diego in 2005 Traditional surveys would be especially difficult due to international agreements, lack of phones, lack of sampling framework, inability to contextualize responses with neighborhoods Methods Topics Covered Knowledge about WNV Sources of information Perceptions re presence of mosquitoes Actions to avoid/kill mosquitoes/prevent bites • Repellent, chemicals, household control Existence of health committees or health information in local area Results Household control of breeding sites - Most people familiar with “control of standing water” Varied understandings of “standing water” Many Culex breeding sites beyond means of household control—related to irrigation and/or sewage canals Results—Information Sources Media most frequently cited as source by those who knew of WNV Spanish speakers in US may not be accessing local news Many report primarily watching satellite channels from Mexico Imperial County (for example) challenged by lack of local stations Results—Special Populations Needs and risks among agricultural workers (US) could be significant during an outbreak, especially among undocumented workers if unlikely to seek medical care Need approaches for non-English and non-Spanish speakers Migrant laborers unlikely to have access to television, mail, etc. Sample Survey Questionnaire Critique While surveys are a strong and popular method, the following are some examples of questions where a closed response may present significant limitations Katrina Questionnaire Critique Tell me all the places you saw or heard information about the hurricane before Katrina. Environmental cues (look outside) Family or friends The Weather Channel Internet Local radio stations Local television stations NOAA Weather Radio Cell Phone Other (please describe) __________________________________________ Katrina Critique, cont. Before Katrina, how serious did you think the hurricane and its consequences would be? □ Very serious □ Moderately serious □ A little serious □ Not serious at all Katrina Critique, cont. Do you think that you will stay in this area (shelter community)? □ YES □ NO Katrina Critique, cont. Should this shelter need to close would you be willing to move another shelter? □ YES □ NO Dengue Questionnaire Critique Do you travel back and forth between the US and Mexico? □ YES □ NO If so, number of days per year? Dengue Critique, cont. Do you have piped water 24 hours/day? □ YES □ NO If no, do you store water in an open container? □ YES □ NO Dengue Critique, cont. Do you have screens on all windows and doors? □ YES □ NO Summary Qualitative data gathering is a rich and important tool in some settings Variety of methods available May overcome limitation of closed survey questions and assist in development of better instruments References Bernard, HR. (2002) Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press Krueger, RA and Casey, MA. (2000). Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Puchta, C. and Potter, J. (2004) Focus Group Practice. London: Sage Publications Zielinski-Gutierrez EC and Hayden MH. (2006) A model for defining West Nile virus risk perception based on ecology and proximity. EcoHealth 3(1): 28-34 ...
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