12. Shipping Industry – Oct. 18th .docx.pdf

12. Shipping Industry – Oct. 18th .docx.pdf - SOCI 235...

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Unformatted text preview: SOCI​ ​235​ ​–​ ​Technology​ ​and​ ​Society Shipping​ ​Industry​ ​–​ ​Oct.​ ​18​th Factors​ ​shaping​ ​nature​ ​of​ ​work,​ ​pre​ ​WW2 1. Ships​ ​arrive​ ​in​ ​ports​ ​full​ ​of​ ​goods​​ ​-​ ​they​ ​need​ ​to​ ​be​ ​unloaded,​ ​sorted​ ​for​ ​different destinations,​ ​and​ ​made​ ​ready​ ​for​ ​pickup,​ ​then​ ​ship​ ​normally​ ​has​ ​to​ ​be​ ​reloaded​ ​with another​ ​type​ ​of​ ​good 2. There​ ​are​ ​different​ ​sorts​ ​of​ ​goods a. Bulk​ ​goods​ ​that​ ​were​ ​always​ ​handled​ ​mechanically,​ ​i.e.​ ​oil,​ ​grain b. Processed​ ​goods​ ​–​ ​required​ ​more​ ​protection,​ ​i.e.​ ​tea,​ ​flour,​ ​compressed​ ​wool c. Fragile​ ​goods​ ​–​ ​electrics,​ ​automobile​ ​component,​ ​required​ ​significant​ ​amount​ ​of labour​ ​intensive​ ​carrying​ ​and​ ​stacking 3. Ship​ ​arrival​ ​times​ ​=​ ​unpredictable​ ​because​ ​of​ ​weather​ ​and​ ​tides 4. Ship​ ​owners​ ​had​ ​interest​ ​in​ ​fast​ ​turnaround​ ​time 5. Work​ ​was​ ​labour​ ​intensive​ ​and​ ​there​ ​was​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​labour​ ​that​ ​was​ ​highly​ ​variable →​​ ​this​ ​caused​ ​a​ ​peak​ ​loading​ ​problem Who​ ​hired​ ​longshoremen? ● Sometimes,​ ​but​ ​rarely,​ ​port​ ​owners ● Usually​ ​governments ● Some​ ​shipping​ ​companies​ ​hired​ ​their​ ​own​ ​longshoremen​ ​–​ ​but​ ​this​ ​was​ ​unusual ● Stevedoring​ ​companies​ ​acted​ ​as​ ​labour​ ​hiring​ ​agents​ ​for​ ​shipping​ ​companies Workers​ ​had​ ​these​ ​characteristics: ● Skills​ ​→​ ​some​ ​craft​ ​workers​ ​in​ ​normal​ ​sense,​ ​senior​ ​longshoremen​ ​called​ ​stevedores who​ ​had​ ​skills​ ​in​ ​stacking​ ​goods​ ​in​ ​a​ ​hold,​ ​most​ ​of​ ​workforce​ ​was​ ​unskilled ● Adapting​ ​to​ ​variable​ ​availability​ ​of​ ​work,​ ​developed​ ​unstable​ ​work​ ​habits ● Port​ ​workers​ ​usually​ ​lived​ ​close​ ​the​ ​port​ ​–​ ​created​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​sense​ ​of​ ​community ● Theft​ ​was​ ​common ● Variable​ ​to​ ​no​ ​job​ ​security,​ ​i.e.​ ​casualism Casualism​ ​–​ ​hired​ ​in​ ​the​ ​morning​ ​for​ ​the​ ​job,​ ​day​ ​by​ ​day​ ​basis ● Created​ ​a​ ​sense​ ​of​ ​community​ ​and​ ​identity ● When​ ​situation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​industry​ ​changed,​ ​trade​ ​grew​ ​rapidly​ ​–​ ​after​ ​WW2 ● The​ ​shape​ ​up​ ​at​ ​the​ ​plant​ ​gate​ ​which​ ​in​ ​turn​ ​encouraged​ ​bribes​ ​and​ ​the​ ​more​ ​general cultivation​ ​of​ ​workers ● Unionization​ ​came​ ​in​ ​the​ ​30s​ ​and​ ​40s,​ ​a​ ​priority​ ​of​ ​unions​ ​was​ ​to​ ​control​ ​hiring​ ​out​ ​of which​ ​developed​ ​union​ ​hiring​ ​halls ● Practices​ ​were​ ​developed​ ​to​ ​maximize​ ​the​ ​hours​ ​of​ ​paid​ ​work ● There​ ​was​ ​a​ ​considerable​ ​emphasis​ ​on​ ​kinship​ ​–​ ​getting​ ​relatives​ ​hired After​ ​WW2​ ​conditions​ ​changed​ ​→​ ​in​ ​contrast​ ​to​ ​interwar​ ​period​ ​labour​ ​markets​ ​tightened ● There​ ​was​ ​full​ ​employment,​ ​port​ ​workforce​ ​was​ ​unionized,​ ​and​ ​strength​ ​of​ ​community meant​ ​that​ ​it​ ​deployed​ ​its​ ​bargaining​ ​power​ ​with​ ​some​ ​effectiveness ● Workers​ ​were​ ​able​ ​to​ ​organize​ ​lots​ ​of​ ​more​ ​or​ ​less​ ​spontaneous​ ​small​ ​strikes ● Such​ ​strikes​ ​were​ ​a​ ​problem​ ​for​ ​shippers​ ​who​ ​want​ ​the​ ​shortest​ ​possible​ ​turnaround time,​ ​damage​ ​could​ ​sometimes​ ​be​ ​catastrophic​ ​because​ ​cargoes​ ​are​ ​perishable ● Large​ ​#​ ​of​ ​stevedoring​ ​companies​ ​meant​ ​that​ ​employees​ ​were​ ​weak​ ​and​ ​divided ● Result​ ​–​ ​conditions​ ​wages​ ​in​ ​the​ ​ports​ ​grew​ ​rapidly​ ​–​ ​more​ ​rapidly​ ​than​ ​wages​ ​in​ ​general ● Since​ ​port​ ​work​ ​was​ ​labour​ ​intensive,​ ​this​ ​provided​ ​strong​ ​incentive​ ​to​ ​innovate​ ​in​ ​a​ ​way that​ ​reduced​ ​the​ ​reliance​ ​on​ ​port​ ​workers 1960s​ ​onwards​ ​–​ ​we​ ​find​ ​an​ ​aggressive​ ​union​ ​behaviour​ ​operating​ ​through​ ​small​ ​groups​ ​rather than​ ​mass​ ​strikes 1950s​ ​onwards​ ​–​ ​wage​ ​growth,​ ​in​ ​unskilled​ ​labour,​ ​better​ ​paid​ ​so​ ​it’s​ ​more​ ​expensive​ ​to​ ​hire them ● This​ ​is​ ​deeply​ ​concerning​ ​for​ ​employers ● For​ ​shippers​ ​–​ ​time​ ​in​ ​the​ ​port​ ​is​ ​lost​ ​money ● Interest​ ​in​ ​speeding​ ​up​ ​shipping​ ​turnover​ ​and​ ​process,​ ​shipping​ ​industry​ ​looked​ ​to technology Ways​ ​of​ ​improving​ ​shipping​ ​and​ ​moving​ ​goods:​​ ​These​ ​sped​ ​up​ ​the​ ​loading​ ​and​ ​unloading process​ ​to​ ​reduce​ ​ship​ ​turnaround​ ​time,​ ​reduced​ ​labour​ ​costs 1. Palletisation​​ ​–​ ​you​ ​have​ ​a​ ​flat​ ​surface​ ​strong​ ​enough​ ​to​ ​hold​ ​goods,​ ​use​ ​crane​ ​to​ ​load pallet​ ​onto​ ​the​ ​ship 2. Containerization​ ​–​ ​shipping​ ​containers,​ ​hold​ ​goods,​ ​new​ ​in​ ​the​ ​1960s,​ ​meant​ ​you​ ​could stack​ ​goods​ ​into​ ​the​ ​container,​ ​seal​ ​it,​ ​keep​ ​it​ ​secure a. Introduced​ ​the​ ​possibility​ ​of​ ​intermodal​ ​shipping​:​ ​moving​ ​goods​ ​between transportation​ ​modes b. Made​ ​the​ ​possibility​ ​of​ ​taking​ ​container,​ ​loading​ ​onto​ ​rail​ ​car,​ ​onto​ ​ship,​ ​etc.​ ​and delivering​ ​it​ ​easy 3. Roll​ ​on/roll​ ​off​ ​trucking​ ​–​ ​big​ ​ship​ ​you​ ​roll​ ​the​ ​trucks​ ​onto​ ​the​ ​ship​ ​and​ ​then​ ​once​ ​it​ ​gets to​ ​the​ ​destination,​ ​you​ ​roll​ ​it​ ​off Expectations​ ​of​ ​these​ ​improved​ ​shipping​ ​methods: 1. Enormous​ ​reduction​ ​in​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​labour o Came​ ​from​ ​reductions​ ​in​ ​the​ ​costs​ ​of​ ​shifting​ ​goods​ ​at​ ​transportation​ ​nodes 2. More​ ​use​ ​of​ ​mechanical​ ​equipment​​ ​–​ ​instead​ ​of​ ​people​ ​carrying​ ​things,​ ​we​ ​have​ ​cranes 3. Chronic​ ​problem​ ​with​ ​theft​​ ​–​ ​poor​ ​workers,​ ​handling​ ​expensive​ ​good,​ ​responded​ ​to​ ​it by​ ​stealing​ ​to​ ​provide​ ​for​ ​themselves o This​ ​would​ ​become​ ​more​ ​difficult​ ​because​ ​goods​ ​would​ ​be​ ​locked​ ​in​ ​containers 4. Jobs​ ​would​ ​be​ ​eliminated 5. Shift​ ​in​ ​skills​ ​demanded​​ ​–​ ​large​ ​#​ ​of​ ​unskilled​ ​jobs​ ​would​ ​be​ ​eliminated​ ​and​ ​smaller number​ ​of​ ​skilled​ ​jobs​ ​created o More​ ​destroying​ ​than​ ​creating o Expected​ ​average​ ​skill​ ​levels​ ​to​ ​go​ ​up​ ​due​ ​to​ ​#​ ​destroyed​ ​and​ ​created o Ex.​ ​crane​ ​drivers​ ​and​ ​mechanics​ ​to​ ​service​ ​the​ ​cranes 6. Creation​ ​of​ ​more​ ​stable​ ​jobs o End​ ​of​ ​casualism​ ​–​ ​much​ ​of​ ​jobs​ ​involve​ ​people​ ​who​ ​the​ ​employer​ ​wants​ ​to​ ​hold onto o There​ ​is​ ​an​ ​incentive​ ​to​ ​retain​ ​skilled​ ​employees o Wage​ ​costs​ ​became​ ​a​ ​smaller​ ​percentage​ ​of​ ​total​ ​costs 7. Logistical​ ​strangulation​ ​–​ ​you​ ​get​ ​a​ ​problem​ ​when​ ​you​ ​improve​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​work​ ​process, and​ ​the​ ​rest​ ​of​ ​the​ ​things​ ​stay​ ​the​ ​same o The​ ​installation​ ​of​ ​lifting​ ​and​ ​moving​ ​equipment​ ​speeded​ ​up​ ​the​ ​flow​ ​through​ ​of goods​ ​as​ ​ports​ ​not​ ​designed​ ​to​ ​accommodate​ ​the​ ​larger​ ​volume o Consequently,​ ​port​ ​would​ ​be​ ​displaced​ ​to​ ​more​ ​spacious​ ​locations o In​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​ports:​ ​they​ ​are​ ​located​ ​in​ ​the​ ​old​ ​city​ ​–​ ​problem​ ​with​ ​the​ ​streets:​ ​they are​ ​narrow,​ ​not​ ​designed​ ​for​ ​a​ ​large​ ​flow​ ​of​ ​deliveries​ ​and​ ​connections o Ports​ ​capacity​ ​increases​ ​as​ ​we​ ​have​ ​containerization​ ​and​ ​use​ ​of​ ​cranes o Eg.​ ​old​ ​MLT,​ ​old​ ​port​ ​of​ ​London​ ​–​ ​not​ ​designed​ ​for​ ​this​ ​type​ ​of​ ​traffic o Solution​ ​to​ ​this​ ​problem:​ ​ports​ ​move​ ​to​ ​a​ ​location​ ​with​ ​more​ ​space, displacement​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​deal​ ​with​ ​the​ ​problem 8. Stevedoring​ ​companies​ ​go​ ​out​ ​of​ ​business​​ ​–​ ​dockworkers,​ ​labor​ ​front​ ​workers​ ​involved in​ ​loading​ ​and​ ​unloading​ ​ships o Eliminated​ ​as​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​labour​ ​brokers​ ​fell​ ​with​ ​the​ ​declining​ ​labour​ ​needs o Shipping​ ​firms​ ​would​ ​increasingly​ ​run​ ​their​ ​own​ ​container​ ​facilitates​ ​and​ ​hire their​ ​own​ ​labour o Or​ ​ports​ ​would​ ​hire​ ​labour​ ​directly In​ ​the​ ​US,​ ​port​ ​workers​ ​were​ ​unionized​ ​by​ ​2​ ​main​ ​unions: 1. International​ ​longshoremen’s​ ​association​ ​–​ ​East​ ​Coast,​ ​Gulf​ ​Coast,​ ​and​ ​Great​ ​Lakes 2. International​ ​longshoremen’s​ ​union​ ​–​ ​West​ ​Coast →​ ​1st​​ ​ ​reaction​ ​of​ ​unions​ ​was​ ​to​ ​reduce​ ​any​ ​productivity​ ​gains​ ​from​ ​new​ ​technology,​ ​1.​ ​Demand that​ ​containers​ ​be​ ​unloaded​ ​and​ ​reloaded​ ​on​ ​the​ ​dock,​ ​2.​ ​Preserve​ ​jobs​ ​through​ ​welt-like practices,​ ​3.​ ​Attempt​ ​to​ ​maintain​ ​gang​ ​sizes​ ​irrespective​ ​the​ ​work​ ​to​ ​be​ ​done 1960​ ​–​ ​Major​ collective​ ​agreement​ ​signed,​ ​Mechanization​ ​and​ ​Modernization​ ​Agreement​, west​ ​coast​ ​agreement​ ​made​ ​by​ ​ILWU​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Pacific​ ​Maritime​ ​Association​ ​–​ ​which​ ​included shipping​ ​companies​ ​and​ ​port​ ​operators ● Had​ ​a​ ​clause​ ​that​ ​said​ ​“management​ ​has​ ​the​ ​right​ ​to​ ​change​ ​the​ ​working​ ​conditions” ● Management​ ​paid​ ​5​ ​million,​ ​per​ ​year​ ​into​ ​an​ ​ILWU​ ​fund​ ​that​ ​provided​ ​retirement incentives:​ ​cash​ ​payments,​ ​pension,​ ​etc. This​ ​became​ ​a​ ​model​ ​for​ ​other​ ​ports​ ​–​ ​adoption​ ​of​ ​same​ ​practices​ ​in​ ​others ● A​ ​few​ ​ports​ ​did​ ​not​ ​agree​ ​and​ ​refused​ ​–​ ​ex.​ ​Liverpool​ ​port​ ​in​ ​England o Consequence​ ​of​ ​not​ ​agreeing​ ​–​ ​shipping​ ​companies​ ​would​ ​go​ ​to​ ​another​ ​port o Either​ ​you​ ​adopted​ ​a​ ​method​ ​like​ ​this,​ ​or​ ​you​ ​went​ ​out​ ​of​ ​business o Had​ ​no​ ​choice​ ​–​ ​if​ ​you​ ​didn’t,​ ​EVERYONE​ ​lost​ ​their​ ​jobs Effects/consequences​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Mechanization​ ​and​ ​Modernization​ ​Agreement​ ​and​ ​similar agreements: ● Mechanization​ ​–​ ​not​ ​all​ ​goods​ ​were​ ​in​ ​containers,​ ​couldn’t​ ​be​ ​mechanized ● Employers​ ​asked​ ​employees​ ​to​ ​carry​ ​heavier​ ​loads​ ​–​ ​jobs​ ​became​ ​more​ ​physically demanding ● Upsurge​ ​in​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​Pacific​ ​port​ ​labour​ ​cause​ ​by​ ​Vietnam​ ​War o Union​ ​secured​ ​creation​ ​of​ ​‘A’​ ​and​ ​‘B’​ ​workers​ ​–​ ​latter​ ​not​ ​eligible​ ​for​ ​funds​ ​from the​ ​pension​ ​pool​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​meet​ ​the​ ​demand​ ​while​ ​not​ ​qualifying​ ​more​ ​people for​ ​pension​ ​pool ▪ This​ ​means​ ​demands​ ​for​ ​people​ ​change​ ​drastically ▪ Employers​ ​don’t​ ​want​ ​to​ ​take​ ​on​ ​people,​ ​have​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​them​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to provide​ ​them​ ​with​ ​an​ ​incentive​ ​for​ ​them​ ​to​ ​retire​ ​later ▪ Employers​ ​had​ ​to​ ​confront​ ​problem​ ​of​ ​hiring​ ​people,​ ​and​ ​not​ ​providing them​ ​with​ ​incentives​ ​to​ ​stop​ ​working​ ​–​ ​this​ ​leads​ ​to​ ​a​ ​distinction between​ ​established​ ​and​ ​casual​ ​labour​ ​where​ ​people​ ​hired​ ​for​ ​casual don’t​ ​equality​ ​for​ ​people​ ​who​ ​are​ ​already​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​port​ ​labour​ ​force ● Introduction​ ​of​ ​classification​ ​of​ ​employees​ ​to​ ​deal​ ​with​ ​change​ ​in demand ● Jobs​ ​then​ ​progressively​ ​became​ ​more​ ​stable​ ​–​ ​employers​ ​wanted​ ​reliable​ ​employees​ ​to be​ ​operating​ ​the​ ​equipment​ ​in​ ​which​ ​they​ ​had​ ​expensively​ ​invested ● In​ ​the​ ​long​ ​term,​ ​as​ ​casualization​ ​increases,​ ​we​ ​see​ ​a​ ​rise​ ​in​ ​average​ ​skill​ ​levels​ ​because: o Bulk​ ​of​ ​unskilled​ ​lifting​ ​and​ ​carrying​ ​jobs​ ​were​ ​eliminated,​ ​and o Operating​ ​and​ ​maintaining​ ​new​ ​equipment​ ​required​ ​training ● Logistical​ ​strangulation​ ​–​ ​led​ ​to​ ​displacement​ ​of​ ​port​ ​activity​ ​to​ ​more​ ​spacious​ ​facilities ● Issues​ ​of​ ​union​ ​jurisdiction​ ​–​ ​if​ ​goods​ ​arrived​ ​by​ ​container​ ​and​ ​were​ ​shipped​ ​to​ ​a warehouse,​ ​which​ ​union​ ​had​ ​the​ ​right​ ​to​ ​the​ ​container?​ ​This​ ​led​ ​to​ ​dispute​ ​in​ ​the​ ​US between​ ​longshore​ ​unions​ ​and​ ​the​ ​teamsters ● Use​ ​of​ ​containers​ ​led​ ​to​ ​fall​ ​in​ ​losses​ ​from​ ​theft o Theft​ ​by​ ​individual​ ​port​ ​workers​ ​was​ ​replaced​ ​by​ ​theft​ ​by​ ​organized​ ​crime​ ​which stole​ ​entire​ ​containers o Reducing​ ​theft​ ​–​ ​didn’t​ ​work,​ ​because​ ​people​ ​stole​ ​entire​ ​container ▪ Insurance​ ​rates​ ​never​ ​fell ▪ Just​ ​as​ ​much​ ​theft ▪ Just​ ​a​ ​different​ ​type​ ​of​ ​theft​ ​–​ ​not​ ​trying​ ​to​ ​steel​ ​one​ ​small​ ​item,​ ​but​ ​the entire​ ​container Effects​ ​of​ ​containerization​ ​on​ ​productivity ● It​ ​rose,​ ​but​ ​slowly o Why/what​ ​issues​ ​made​ ​it​ ​slow? i. Productivity​ ​advances​ ​come​ ​from​ ​fact​ ​that​ ​you​ ​can​ ​switch​ ​between transportation​ ​modes​ ​easily​ ​–​ ​Intermodal 1. This​ ​requires​ ​cooperation​ ​from​ ​owners​ ​of​ ​other​ ​transportation modes 2. Many​ ​benefits​ ​of​ ​containerization​ ​come​ ​from​ ​intermodal​ ​shipping that​ ​require​ ​road​ ​and​ ​rail​ ​must​ ​make​ ​investments​ ​in​ ​containers​ ​as well​ ​–​ ​attach​ ​it​ ​to​ ​the​ ​car,​ ​and​ ​train,​ ​etc. ii. Productivity​ ​gains​ ​by​ ​containerization​ ​were​ ​slowed​ ​by​ ​other​ ​industries​ ​to adapt​ ​and​ ​develop​ ​same​ ​technology 1. This​ ​required​ ​shippers​ ​had​ ​to​ ​recognize​ ​the​ ​possibilities​ ​of containers​ ​–​ ​had​ ​to​ ​learn​ ​that​ ​they​ ​should​ ​time​ ​amt.​ ​of​ ​goods​ ​so container​ ​was​ ​filled a. Cost​ ​almost​ ​the​ ​same​ ​to​ ​ship​ ​and​ ​empty​ ​container​ ​as​ ​a​ ​full one b. Want​ ​to​ ​get​ ​the​ ​most​ ​‘bang​ ​for​ ​your​ ​buck’ 2. Transportation​ ​was​ ​in​ ​many​ ​parts​ ​a​ ​substantially​ ​regulated industry a. Conferences​ ​set​ ​shipping​ ​rates iii. Logistical​ ​strangulation​ ​–​ ​leading​ ​to​ ​port​ ​movement iv. Good​ ​shipped​ ​from​ ​one​ ​port​ ​to​ ​another​ ​–​ ​but​ ​dispute​ ​over​ ​space​ ​of containers ● To​ ​achieve​ ​productivity​ ​gains,​ ​following​ ​issues​ ​had​ ​to​ ​be​ ​addressed: o Standardization​ ​of​ ​container​ ​dimensions,​ ​design,​ ​and​ ​locking​ ​system o Need​ ​for​ ​complementary​ ​investments​ ​–​ ​ships​ ​designed​ ​to​ ​carry​ ​containers, ports​ ​with​ ​space​ ​for​ ​cranes​ ​and​ ​container​ ​storage o Productivity​ ​advancement​ ​delayed​ ​bc.​ ​ports​ ​had​ ​to​ ​make​ ​parts,​ ​etc. o Other​ ​transportation​ ​modes​ ​–​ ​were​ ​reluctant​ ​to​ ​adapt o Shippers​ ​had​ ​to​ ​change​ ​their​ ​practices​ ​to​ ​maximize​ ​gains​ ​from​ ​containers o Regulations​ ​limited​ ​efficient​ ​exploitation​ ​of​ ​containers How​ ​does​ ​the​ ​union​ ​respond​ ​to​ ​the​ ​problem​ ​of​ ​containerization? Context​ ​to​ ​their​ ​reaction​ ​were​ ​facts​ ​that​ ​technological​ ​change​ ​in​ ​the​ ​industry​ ​brought​ ​a)​ ​a​ ​large quantity​ ​of​ ​job​ ​elimination,​ ​b)​ ​an​ ​increase​ ​in​ ​average​ ​skill​ ​levels,​ ​c)​ ​a​ ​surge​ ​in​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​West coast​ ​port​ ​labour​ ​which​ ​disrupted​ ​working​ ​of​ ​the​ ​M&M​ ​agreement 2. Demands​ ​that​ ​existing​ ​responsibilities​ ​be​ ​adapted​ ​to​ ​containers​​ ​–​ ​ex.​ ​bring​ ​container to​ ​port,​ ​open​ ​it,​ ​our​ ​people​ ​unload,​ ​then​ ​load​ ​it​ ​again a. A​ ​way​ ​of​ ​keeping​ ​the​ ​port​ ​workers​ ​busy b. Do​ ​the​ ​same​ ​thing​ ​with​ ​pallets c. Find​ ​make​ ​work​ ​responses​ ​the​ ​challenge​ ​posed​ ​by​ ​unionization d. Must​ ​use​ ​our​ ​workers​ ​even​ ​if​ ​it’s​ ​a​ ​waste​ ​of​ ​time,​ ​do​ ​it​ ​or​ ​we​ ​will​ ​go​ ​on​ ​strike 3. Position​ ​of​ ​stevedoring​ ​firms​​ ​–​ ​they​ ​want​ ​to​ ​support​ ​the​ ​unions​ ​in​ ​attempt​ ​to​ ​create​ ​as many​ ​jobs​ ​as​ ​possible a. We​ ​also​ ​have​ ​well​ ​liked​ ​practices​ ​–​ ​agreements​ ​among​ ​practices:​ ​some​ ​work, some​ ​don’t 4. Try​ ​to​ ​use​ ​text​ ​of​ ​agreement​​ ​to​ ​say​ ​that​ ​unloading​ ​this​ ​#​ ​of​ ​goods​ ​requires​ ​this​ ​specific #​ ​of​ ​people​ ​here​ ​and​ ​there​ ​–​ ​must​ ​follow​ ​these​ ​rules a. All​ ​of​ ​these​ ​defensive​ ​adaptations​ ​are​ ​created​ ​by​ ​trade​ ​unions​ ​in​ ​effort​ ​to​ ​keep lots​ ​of​ ​jobs b. Sought​ ​to​ ​control​ ​hiring​ ​to​ ​modify​ ​the​ ​operation​ ​of​ ​casualism​ ​through introduction​ ​of​ ​union​ ​hiring​ ​hall 5. Supported​ ​and​ ​encouraged​ ​effort​ ​limiting​ ​practices​ ​while​ ​attempting​ ​to​ ​limit​ ​effects​ ​of containerization​ ​by​ ​using​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​their​ ​collective​ ​agreements​ ​to​ ​subvert​ ​the​ ​possibly productivity​ ​contains​ ​from​ ​technology 6. They​ ​recognize​ ​that​ ​technological​ ​changes​ ​are​ ​inevitable​ ​by​ ​end​ ​of​ ​1950s 7. Try​ ​to​ ​maximize​ ​extent​ ​of​ ​jurisdiction​​ ​–​ ​in​ ​particular​ ​over​ ​issue​ ​of​ ​breaking​ ​down containers 8. Defended​ ​core​ ​members​ ​during​ ​Vietnam​ ​War​ ​and​ ​were​ ​indifferent​ ​with​ ​respect​ ​to​ ​port workers​ ​who​ ​were​ ​not​ ​defined​ ​as​ ​part​ ​of​ ​their​ ​core​ ​membership Origins​ ​of​ ​the​ ​innovation ● Long​ ​history​ ​of​ ​putting​ ​freight​ ​in​ ​boxes​ ​of​ ​various​ ​kinds o Little​ ​was​ ​done​ ​to​ ​integrate​ ​use​ ​of​ ​these​ ​boxes​ ​into​ ​larger​ ​transportation​ ​system ● Malcolm​ ​McClean​ ​started​ ​trucking​ ​business,​ ​explored​ ​possibility​ ​of​ ​putting​ ​trucks​ ​onto ships,​ ​then​ ​switched​ ​to​ ​containers o At​ ​beginning,​ ​he​ ​bought​ ​tankers​ ​and​ ​stowed​ ​containers​ ​on​ ​their​ ​decks o This​ ​required​ ​i)​ ​the​ ​construction​ ​od​ ​frames​ ​that​ ​attached​ ​the​ ​containers​ ​to​ ​the desks,​ ​and​ ​ii)​ ​purchase​ ​of​ ​cranes​ ​to​ ​load​ ​containers o In​ ​1956​ ​–​ ​his​ ​company​ ​developed​ ​designs​ ​that​ ​would​ ​allow​ ​putting​ ​containers into​ ​the​ ​hold ▪ This​ ​involved​ ​i)​ ​enlarged​ ​hatches,​ ​ii)​ ​cells​ ​to​ ​old​ ​containers,​ ​iii)​ ​locking system​ ​to​ ​attach​ ​containers​ ​to​ ​the​ ​cells,​ ​iv)​ ​reinforced​ ​container​ ​corners to​ ​allow​ ​stacking ● Matson​ ​did​ ​parallel​ ​work​ ​that​ ​took​ ​a​ ​more​ ​analytic​ ​approach;​ ​they​ ​attempted​ ​to optimize​ ​the​ ​design​ ​of​ ​containers​ ​and​ ​their​ ​shipping​ ​system o One​ ​problem​ ​he​ ​faced​ ​was​ ​dealing​ ​with​ ​small​ ​deliveries​ ​made​ ​to​ ​Hawaiian grocery​ ​stores o His​ ​firm​ ​1st​​ ​ ​speeded​ ​up​ ​loading​ ​and​ ​unloading​ ​by​ ​installing​ ​2​ ​cranes​ ​on​ ​each​ ​ship, this​ ​required​ ​system​ ​for​ ​ensuring​ ​that​ ​both​ ​cranes​ ​weren’t​ ​directed​ ​at​ ​the​ ​quay at​ ​same​ ​time;​ ​this​ ​would​ ​have​ ​risked​ ​causing​ ​the​ ​ship​ ​to​ ​capsize o He​ ​decided​ ​to​ ​install​ ​cranes​ ​on​ ​land​ ​due​ ​to​ ​these​ ​risks ● From​ ​late​ ​1950s,​ ​standards​ ​setting​ ​bodies​ ​addressed​ ​issue​ ​of​ ​container​ ​sizes​ ​and​ ​locking devices​ ​–​ ​problem​ ​with​ ​this​ ​was​ ​that​ ​the​ ​best​ ​design​ ​was​ ​patented​ ​by​ ​McClean ● 1963​ ​–​ ​McClean​ ​released​ ​its​ ​patents​ ​on​ ​the​ ​design Core​ ​components​ ​of​ ​this​ ​innovation: ● Creation​ ​of​ ​system​ ​of​ ​marine​ ​transportation​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​increasing​ ​integration​ ​of trucking​ ​and​ ​rail​ ​into​ ​that​ ​system ● Enormous​ ​amounts​ ​of​ ​adaptive​ ​technological​ ​change​ ​–​ ​experimentation​ ​with​ ​different container​ ​sizes,​ ​locking​ ​devices,​ ​crane​ ​configurations,​ ​etc. ● Establishment​ ​of​ ​standards​ ​for​ ​container​ ​design,​ ​locking​ ​devices,​ ​etc. ● Government​ ​support​ ​through​ ​wartime​ ​contracts ...
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