Animal Behavior Exam 1 Study Guide.docx

Animal Behavior Exam 1 Study Guide.docx - Review for exam 1...

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Review for exam 1 02/27/2018 ° Quiz 1 Spring 2018 proximate – regarding learning, social behavior, etc. A mechanism. Includes genetic information and development. “How question” The ability of killer whales to produce sound can be traced to a portion of the brain that develops early in fetal development. ultimate – regarding the overall fitness benefit. Underlying reason for behavior. “Why question” Communications among family members in the pod increase hunting success. evolution = any change in allele frequencies in a population over time evolutionary fitness = an individual’s contribution to the gene pool of the next generation ethogram = a catalogue of behaviors or actions exhibited by an animal; often used as a way to quantify behavior and reduce variation between observers heritability = a measure of how much of the variation in trait values in a population is due to variation in genetic factors observational method = systematic recording of behavior ad libitum – watching all animals all the time focal animal – only watch one animal scan sampling – over time period, go from left to right recording everything you see behavior sampling – watching for a specific behavior to occur comparative method = comparisons among individuals of the same species but in different habitats OR between related species i.e. black-headed gulls mob predators but closely-related Kittiwakes don’t. Kittiwakes live on cliffs so they are more protected convergent and divergent evolution patterns observed experimental method = lab study or field study, involves altering a variable and observing animals’ response lab – white-crowned sparrow can learn another species’ song only if cross-fostered with that species field – Tinbergen nest experiment; wasps can’t find nest without landmarks
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correlational method = measurable changes in animals behavior that can be observed and compared to other stats used as a basis for experimental studies cost-benefit analysis = behavior is examined in terms of cost to animal vs. gain to animal, following the assumption that animals behave to maximize benefit and minimize cost i.e. eggshell removal from nest functional unit of evolution = the population functional unit of natural selection = the individual Joel & McCarthy article reviews that sex differences may be correlational rather than causal The brain is dynamic, so taxi drivers develop a larger hippocampus due to their heightened need for spatial aptitude You can trick a white-crowned sparrow male into singing the song of another species by cross-fostering a population can evolve without natural selection genetic drift gene flow (immigration/emigration) nonrandom mating in order to successfully carry out an artificial selection experiment, the trait being evaluated must already have variation and that variation must have a genetic basis
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