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Chapter Six Fluid and Electrolyte, Acid Base Imbalance.pptx...

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Chapter SixFluid, Electrolyte, andAcid – Base ImbalancesFluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance1
CBC Results:“Shift to the Left”Fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance2
Cholera Epidemic In HaitFluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance3In October 2010, when cholera was just beginning tospread through earthquake-ravaged Hait, Tweets, blogsand other Internet-based social media detected andtracked the epidemic faster than traditonal methodssuch as government surveillance reports, according to anew analysisby researchers at Children’s HospitalBoston and Harvard Medical School.
Current Events:Cholera is now endemic in HaitFluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance4
Fluid BalanceReview:Water is a major component of bodyFound:Within cellOutside cellEssental to homeostasisFluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance5
Homeostasis:What is it?6
Intake and Output of WaterAmount of water entering the body shouldequal the amount of water leaving the body.
WaterFluids facilitate movement of body parts:found in joints and lungsWithout adequate fluid, cells cannot functonand death occursFluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance8
Water:Why is it essental?Metabolic reactons and other processes takeplace within the water environmentIt is the transport system for the bodynutrients into the cellsRemoves WasteTransports enzymes in the digestve secretonsMoves cells around bodyFluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance9
Fluid CompartmentsAbout 60% of adults’ body weight is waterAbout 70% of infants’ body is waterFemales – higher percentage of fatty tssue,lower water content than malesOlder adults and obese – lower proporton ofwater
Fluid Compartments (Cont’d)Intracellular compartment (ICF)Extracellular compartment (ECF)Intravascular fluid (IVF) or bloodIntersttal fluid (ISF) or intercellular fluidCerebrospinal fluid (CSF)Transcellular fluidsPresent in various secretonsPericardial cavitySynovial cavites
Fluid Compartments in the Body
Body Fluid CompartmentsAppendix 1 page 645Fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance13
Sources and Losses of Water
Movement of WaterFluid circulates throughout body via filtratonand osmosis.Water moves between compartments viaHydrostatc pressureOsmotc pressure
FluidRemember:Change in eitherhydrostatc or osmotcpressure can alter fluidmovement and volumein compartmentsFluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance16
Movements of Water betweenCompartments
Control of Fluid BalanceThirst mechanismOsmoreceptors in the hypothalamusAntdiuretc hormonePromotes reabsorpton of water into blood fromkidney tubulesAldosteroneDetermines reabsorpton of sodium ions and waterAtrial naturetc peptdeRegulates fluid, sodium and potassium levels
The “Push”Hydrostatc pressureFluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-BaseImbalance19

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