ANTH140FinalStudyGuide.docx - Epiclassic themes of Aztec...

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Epiclassic, themes of Aztec and Mayan conquest and colonial period The Epiclassic Period and the Great Tollans Alta Vista: northwestern center, falls during the open of the Post Classic Period, manufactured raw goods, engaged in mining of different stones, presence of the skull rack, bellicose nature Cacaxtla: hilltop site during the epiclassic( 8th and 9th century AD), old metropolitan center with control over Teo trade routes,not a Maya site (no hieroglyphs), home to a fantastic display of murals Cacaxtla murals: located in a palace complex with rooftop architecture, murals appear on the stuccoed walls of Building A and on the talud of building B, the north murals depict a man with jaguar feet and jaguar skin, meanwhile the south mural depicts a man wearing an eagle costume, both murals depict a sort of juxtaposition between eagles and jaguars → symbolic of the knightly order Cantona: located in the state of Puebla, founded on volcanic flow, 24 ball courts found at the site, up to 18 could have functioned at one time, controlled an enormous source of Obsidian in central Mexico Ce Acatl(1 Reed) Topiltzin Quetzacoatl: son of Mixcoatl, later mistaken for the Feathered Serpent, described as being of fair skin with long hair and a black beard, ruler of Tula, ends up fleeing Tula in exile after burning or burying all his treasures Chichen Itza: located in east central Yucatan, Toltec-Maya center, very similar to Tula( feathered serpent columns, glyphs, colonnaded halls, man bird serpent creatures, large ball courts, atlantids, etc,) “Puuc” Maya style architecture in the south, location of several cenotes that carried religious significance and also provided drinking water, appropriation and trade between Tula and Chichen Itza existed Cholula: continuously occupied site in MA, was not destroyed by volcanic eruptions, talud tablero style architecture incorporated after the fall of Teo, actively resisted Teo during their time of fluorescence, location of The Great Pyramid, overthrown by the Toltecs in 1200 El Tajin: at least 17 ball courts were present at the site, connected to classic veracruz, last complex flourishing city, the Totanac may have ruled el Tajin El Zapotal: Totonac archaeological site; contains a lot of pottery and sculptures, most significant is the Mictlantecuhtli sculpture, God of death accompanied with life-size figures of women (Mound 2) Early Postclassic Period: 900 - 1200; important centers include Tula, Mitla, Tulum, Toltec states, Tollan, Mazapan: In the Postclassic Era many of the great nations and cities of the Classic Era collapsed, although some continued, such as in Oaxaca , Cholula , and the Maya of Yucatán , such as
at Chichen Itza and Uxmal . This is sometimes seen as a period of increased chaos and warfare. The Postclassic is often viewed as a period of cultural decline.

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