Geol109 Feb07 NOTES

Geol109 Feb07 NOTES - 1 Rocks and Minerals minerals rock...

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• Rocks and Minerals – minerals – rock types – chemical and physical weathering • Volcanoes – Properties of magma 1 2 What’s the difference between a mineral and a rock? 3 Minerals • Crystal Structure – regular, geometric organization • Must be: – naturally formed – solid – specific chemical composition – characteristic crystal structure 4 Minerals • 3500 identified - Know top 6 most abundant minerals of 3500 total Galena = PbS, Quartz = S1O2 Mineral Categorizations: -Silicates=most abundant • Most occur in rocks of the continental crust • 40 common • ~12 most abundant elements
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5 Minerals • Silicates –(SiO4)-4 – tetrahedron: basic building block – most abundant category of minerals – e.g., kyanite: Al2SiO4 6 Minerals • Silicates – polymerization of tetrahedrons forms chains, sheets, and 3D networks 6 Minerals • Silicates – polymerization of tetrahedrons forms chains, sheets, and 3D networks 7 Minerals • Silicates 8 Minerals • Silicates – focus on concept of crystal structure here – worry about actual minerals in lab XXX *Know categories of mineral structures, and know the basic form = the tetrahedron
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9 Minerals • Identification – crystal form – example = granite, pyrite (fool’s gold) – cleavage (ex = mica: 1 direction of cleavage, ex = halite: cleaves in 3 different directions – cleaves in cubes) – color and streak (scratch mineral on tile: does it streak? What color? Ex = hematite is black but its streak is rust-colored) – hardness (hardest = diamond, softest = talc) – Moh’s hardness scale: relative hardness test – density and specific : density = mass/volume - gravity
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Minerals • Identification – crystal form – cleavage
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course GEOL 109 taught by Professor Surge during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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Geol109 Feb07 NOTES - 1 Rocks and Minerals minerals rock...

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