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Phase 1: (1933-1939) Legislation and Coerced EmigrationApplies to places where Nazis had controloGermanyoAustria (1938, onwards)oSudetenland, Czechoslovakia (1939 onwards)Jan 30, 1933: Hitler becomes ChancelloroNazi policies reflect ideas in the 25 point plan (1920)Jewish policy is carried out through passing of lawsoOver 400 decrees passed outlining what Jews can and cannot dooGoal was to make Jews leave voluntarilyDisorganized, contradictory program that resulted from trial and erroroNo centralized office until 1938oLots of uncoordinated effortsConsolidating PowerDID NOT GO AFTER JEWS AT FIRST, needed to get rid of political opponentsReichstag Fire, February 27, 1933oReichstag Fire Decree Feb 27, 1933oEnabling Act, March 1933Allowed Chancellor to pass legislation w/o approval of the Reichstag(emergency powers)Full legislative and executive powersFirst law passed was the banning of all political parties beside the Nazis(by July)On Bastille Day, birth of political democracy in French RevolutionCommunist party was targeted first (10,000 members)Shut down communist newspapers, etc.Trade unions are abolished (seen as socialist)Merged into the German Workers’ FrontFirst concentration camp established atDachau, March 1933oPurpose was to send political enemiesNot to kill (yet), use for laborNot kept secretLet the public know that there were serious consequences to politicaloppositionSigned theConcordatoDeal with the Vatican (Catholic Church) that established that Catholics will havefreedom of religion in Nazi Germany if the Church would not intervene inGerman politicsNo criticizing the Nazi regime, influencing Catholic voteoNazis often broke the agreement in the 1930s1934—Hindenburg dies (President of Germany)
oConsolidation act: legislation that combines office of President and Chancellor ofGermanyNew leader is now de FuhrerNo legal/constitutional limits to his authority1933- 7,000 Jews emigrate from GermanyGerman Jews make up less than 1% of the German populationoAbout 500,000 Jews in entire German countryAbout 80% of them were assimilatedOther 20% were new immigrants from Eastern EuropeKey Legislative EventsNazi Boycott of Jewish Businesses (April 1, 1933)oSA would stand outside Jewish businesses and told shoppers to not shop thereoCalled off after 1 dayGerman public did not fully cooperateDid not like gov. telling them where to shop/ what to doJewish involvement in the German economy was key to keeping theeconomy aliveMany big businesses were owned by Jews, would mean giantnumbers of unemployment if they went out of businessLaw for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (April 7, 1933)oFirst major law to curtail Jewish rights in GermanyoForces Jewish teachers, judges, and professors out of public serviceHuge exemption for Jewish WWI veteransoAryan Paragraph defines Jew a someone with one Jewish grandparent