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Unit Six Study GuideFrom Martin:XerxesHellespontThermopylaeLeonidasThemistoclesBattle of SalamisPausaniusBattle of PlataeaBattle of MycaleFrom Herodotus:Herodotus 7.140-144…Know the significance of Themistocles in shapingAthen’s longterm/short-termnaval strategy (silver from Laureion mines, interpretation of “wooden walls”oracle, ruse to lure Persians into narrow strait of Salamis)Greek Civilization Lecture 09: The Battle of ThermopylaeXerxes Invasion of Greece (480 BC)After Marathon, Darius began to plan another expedition against Greece.Preparations were still underway at the time of his death in 486 B.C.E.-Darius was succeeded by son Xerxes.-Before confronting with Greeks, Xerxes’ first had to quell rebellions inEgypt and Babylon (484 and 482 BCE)-Herodotus also portrays a young king who is uncertain about undertakingsuch an invasion. Once the Egyptian and Babylonian revolts were crushed, Xerxes planned toattack Greece by land and by sea. -Herodotus gives numbers for Xerxes’ army that modern historians findincredible (2,641,610 troops and over 1200 warships). A land force of264,000 is credible, and Xerxes’ fleet probably consisted of 700 ships. Herodotus stresses the hubris of Xerxes in how he treats nature and man. -In 484 BCE, he ordered a canal to be cut through Mount Athos. -Later, he ordered the bridging of the Hellespont. -When the first bridges were destroyed by a storm, Xerxes had theHellespont whipped and had the engineers beheaded-The lydian oythios After Marathon, the Athenians became complacement, feeling that theirhoplites could handle any future Persian attack. On Athenian, Themistocles地米斯托克利（古希腊杰出的政治家）, believed hat only astrong navy could save Athens if the Persians returned- who has a great deal