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Unified Fracture Design Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice
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Unified Fracture Design Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice Michael Economides Ronald Oligney Peter Valkó Orsa Press Alvin, Texas
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Unified Fracture Design Copyright © 2002 by Orsa Press All rights, including reproduction by photographic or electronic process and translation into other languages are fully reserved under the International Copyright Union, the Universal Copyright Convention, and the Pan-American Copyright Convention. Reproduction of this book in whole or in part in any manner without written permission from the publisher is prohibited. Orsa Press P.O. Box 2569 Alvin, TX 77512 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Economides, Michael J. Unified fracture design : bridging the gap between theory and practice / Michael Economides, Ronald Oligney, Peter Valkó p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-9710427-0-5 (alk. paper) 1. Oil wells—Hydraulic fracturing. I. Oligney, Ronald E. II. Valkó, Peter, 1950- III. Title. TN871.E335 2002 622'.3382—dc21 2002025793 Printed in the United States of America
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Contents v C HAPTER 1 Hydraulic Fracturing for Production or Injection Enhancement 1 FRACTURING AS COMPLETION OF CHOICE 1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF UNIFIED FRACTURE DESIGN 4 Fractured Well Performance 5 Sizing and Optimization 7 Fracture-to-Well Connectivity 8 THE TIP SCREENOUT CONCEPT AND OTHER ISSUES IN HIGH PERMEABILITY FRACTURING 9 Tip Screenout Design 10 Net Pressure and Leakoff in the High Permeability Environment 11 Candidate Selection 12 BACK OF THE ENVELOPE FRACTURE DESIGN 14 Design Logic 14 Fracture Design Spreadsheet 14 C HAPTER 2 How To Use This Book 17 STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK 17 WHICH SECTIONS ARE FOR YOU 18 Fracturing Crew 19
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vi Contents C HAPTER 3 Well Stimulation as a Means to Increase the Productivity Index 23 PRODUCTIVITY INDEX 23 THE WELL-FRACTURE-RESERVOIR SYSTEM 26 PROPPANT NUMBER 27 Well Performance for Low and Moderate Proppant Numbers 32 OPTIMUM FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY 35 DESIGN LOGIC 38 C HAPTER 4 Fracturing Theory 39 LINEAR ELASTICITY AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 39 FRACTURING FLUID MECHANICS 42 LEAKOFF AND VOLUME BALANCE IN THE FRACTURE 46 Formal Material Balance: The Opening-Time Distribution Factor 46 Constant Width Approximation (Carter Equation II) 48 Power Law Approximation to Surface Growth 48 Detailed Leakoff Models 50 BASIC FRACTURE GEOMETRIES 50 Perkins-Kern Width Equation 51 Khristianovich-Zheltov-Geertsma-deKlerk Width Equation 53 Radial (Penny-shaped) Width Equation 54 C HAPTER 5 Fracturing of High Permeability Formations 57 THE EVOLUTION OF THE TECHNIQUE 57 HPF IN VIEW OF COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES 60 Gravel Pack 60 High-Rate Water Packs 62 PERFORMANCE OF FRACTURED HORIZONTAL WELLS IN HIGH PERMEABILITY FORMATIONS 62
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Contents vii DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF HPF 63 The Tip Screenout Concept 63 Net Pressure and Fluid Leakoff 66 Net Pressure, Closure Pressure, and Width in Soft Formations 66 Fracture Propagation 66
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