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Unformatted text preview: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. • P H Y S I C S F O R E N GIN E E R S A N D S CIE N TIS T S THIRD EDITION Volume One Hans C. Ohanian, John T. Markert Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page vi PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:28 PM Page i PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics for Engineers and Scientists Third Edition Volume1 (Chapters 1–21) MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY O S C I L L AT I O N S , WAV E S , A N D F L U I D S T E M P E R AT U R E , H E AT, A N D T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S W • W • NORTON & COMPANY B NEW YORK • LONDON Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:28 PM Page ii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page iii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics for Engineers and Scientists Third Edition Volume1 (Chapters 1–21) MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY O S C I L L AT I O N S , WAV E S , A N D F L U I D S T E M P E R AT U R E , H E AT, A N D T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S HANS C. OHANIAN, UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT J O H N T. M A R K E R T, U N I V E R S I T Y O F T E X A S AT A U S T I N W • W • NORTON & COMPANY B NEW YORK • LONDON Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page iv PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] To Susan Ohanian, writer, who gently tried to teach me some of her craft.—H.C.O. To Frank D. Markert, a printer by trade; to Christiana Park, for her thirst for new knowledge; and to Erin, Ryan, Sean, and Gwen, for their wonder and clarity.—J.T.M. Copyright © 2007 by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Third Edition Composition: Techbooks Manufacturing: RR Donnelley & Sons Company Editor: Leo A. W. Wiegman Media Editor: April E. Lange Director of Manufacturing—College: Roy Tedoff Senior Project Editor: Christopher Granville Photo Researcher: Kelly Mitchell Editorial Assistant: Lisa Rand, Sarah L. Mann Copy Editor: Richard K. Mickey Book designer: Sandy Watanabe Layout artist: Paul Lacy Illustration Studio: JB Woolsey Arts, Inc. Cover Illustration: John Belcher, inter alia. Cover Design: Joan Greenfield Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for. ISBN 978-0-393-11101-9 (ebook) W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110 W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1234567890 W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The Nortons soon expanded their program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts— were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page v PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Brief Contents Chapters 1–21 appear in Volume 1; Chapters 22–36 appear in Volume 2; Chapters 37–41 appear in Volume 3. PREFACE xiii OWNER’S MANUAL xxv PRELUDE: THE WORLD OF PHYSICS xxxv PART IV ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 22. ELECTRIC FORCE AND ELECTRIC CHARGE 23. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 24. GAUSS’ LAW PART I MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY 1 25. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND ENERGY 1. SPACE, TIME, AND MASS 2 26. CAPACITORS AND DIELECTRICS 2. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 28 27. CURRENTS AND OHM’S LAW 3. VECTORS 69 28. DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUITS 4. MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS 94 29. MAGNETIC FORCE AND FIELD 5. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 130 30. CHARGES AND CURRENTS IN MAGNETIC FIELDS 6. FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S LAWS 173 31. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 7. WORK AND ENERGY 204 32. ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUITS 8. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 235 9. GRAVITATION 271 10. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 305 11. COLLISIONS 338 12. ROTATION OF A RIGID BODY 365 13. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 394 14. STATICS AND ELASTICITY 429 PART II OSCILLATIONS, WAVES, AND FLUIDS 466 PART V WAVES AND OPTICS 33. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 34. REFLECTION, REFRACTION, AND OPTICS 35. INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION PART VI RELATIVITY, QUANTA, AND PARTICLES 36. THE THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY 15. OSCILLATIONS 468 37. QUANTA OF LIGHT 16. WAVES 507 38. SPECTRAL LINES, BOHR’S THEORY, AND QUANTUM MECHANICS 17. SOUND 536 18. FLUID MECHANICS 565 PART III TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND THERMODYNAMICS 600 19. THE IDEAL GAS 602 39. QUANTUM STRUCTURE OF ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND SOLIDS 40. NUCLEI 41. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND COSMOLOGY APPENDICES A-1 20. HEAT 628 21. THERMODYNAMICS 661 v Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page vi PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page vii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Table of Contents Chapters 1–21 appear in Volume 1; Chapters 22–36 appear in Volume 2; and Chapters 37–41 appear in Volume 3. PREFACE xiii 3.3 OWNER’S MANUAL xxv 3.4 PRELUDE: THE WORLD OF PHYSICS xxxv PART I MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY 1 1. SPACE, TIME, AND MASS 2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Coordinates and Reference Frames 3 The Unit of Length 5 The Unit of Time 9 The Unit of Mass 11 Derived Units 13 Significant Figures; Consistency of Units and Conversion of Units 14 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 20 2. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 28 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7* Average Speed 29 Average Velocity for Motion along a Straight Line 32 Instantaneous Velocity 35 Acceleration 39 Motion with Constant Acceleration 42 The Acceleration of Free Fall 49 Integration of the Equations of Motion 54 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 57 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 87 4. MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS 94 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 130 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 3.2 The Displacement Vector and Other Vectors 70 Vector Addition and Subtraction 72 Newton’s First Law 131 Newton’s Second Law 133 The Combination of Forces 138 Weight; Contact Force and Normal Force 141 Newton’s Third Law 144 Motion with a Constant Force 151 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 159 6. FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S LAWS 173 6.1 6.3 6.4* 3.1 Components of Velocity and Acceleration 95 The Velocity and Acceleration Vectors 98 Motion with Constant Acceleration 102 The Motion of Projectiles 104 Uniform Circular Motion 112 The Relativity of Motion and the Addition of Velocities 115 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 118 6.2 3. VECTORS 69 The Position Vector; Components of a Vector 76 Vector Multiplication 81 Friction 174 Restoring Force of a Spring; Hooke’s Law 182 Force for Uniform Circular Motion 184 The Four Fundamental Forces 191 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 192 vii Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page viii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] viii CONTENTS 7. WORK AND ENERGY 204 12.2 12.3 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Work 205 Work for a Variable Force 211 Kinetic Energy 214 Gravitational Potential Energy 218 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 224 12.4* 12.5 Rotation about a Fixed Axis 367 Motion with Constant Angular Acceleration 374 Motion with Time-Dependent Angular Acceleration 376 Kinetic Energy of Rotation; Moment of Inertia 378 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 384 8. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 235 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4* 8.5 Potential Energy of a Conservative Force 236 The Curve of Potential Energy 244 Other Forms of Energy 248 Mass and Energy 251 Power 253 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 259 9. GRAVITATION 271 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 272 The Measurement of G 277 Circular Orbits 278 Elliptical Orbits; Kepler’s Laws 282 Energy in Orbital Motion 288 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 293 13. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 394 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4* Work, Energy, and Power in Rotational Motion; Torque 395 The Equation of Rotational Motion 399 Angular Momentum and its Conservation 406 Torque and Angular Momentum as Vectors 410 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 417 14. STATICS AND ELASTICITY 429 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Statics of Rigid Bodies 430 Examples of Static Equilibrium 433 Levers and Pulleys 441 Elasticity of Materials 445 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 450 10. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 305 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Momentum 306 Center of Mass 313 The Motion of the Center of Mass 323 Energy of a System of Particles 327 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 328 PART II OSCILLATIONS, WAVES, AND FLUIDS 466 15. OSCILLATIONS 468 15.1 11. COLLISIONS 338 15.2 15.3 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4* Impulsive Forces 339 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 344 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 348 Collisions in Two and Three Dimensions 351 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 354 15.4 15.5* Simple Harmonic Motion 469 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator 476 Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 480 The Simple Pendulum 484 Damped Oscillations and Forced Oscillations 488 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 494 16. WAVES 507 12. ROTATION OF A RIGID BODY 365 16.1 12.1 Motion of a Rigid Body 366 16.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Motion 508 Periodic Waves 509 Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page ix PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] CONTENTS 16.3 16.4 The Superposition of Waves 516 Standing Waves 520 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 524 21. THERMODYNAMICS 661 21.1 21.2 21.3 17. SOUND 536 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5* Sound Waves in Air 538 Intensity of Sound 540 The Speed of Sound; Standing Waves 543 The Doppler Effect 574 Diffraction 553 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 555 18. FLUID MECHANICS 565 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 Density and Flow Velocity 567 Incompressible Steady Flow; Streamlines 569 Pressure 573 Pressure in a Static Fluid 575 Archimedes’ Principle 580 Fluid Dynamics; Bernoulli’s Equation 582 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 587 PART III TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND THERMODYNAMICS 600 21.4 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 681 PART IV ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 22. ELECTRIC FORCE AND ELECTRIC CHARGE 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 The Ideal-Gas Law 603 The Temperature Scale 609 Kinetic Pressure 613 The Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas 616 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 619 23. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 23.1 23.2 23.4 23.5 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6* Heat as a Form of Energy Transfer 629 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 633 Thermal Conduction 638 Changes of State 642 The Specific Heat of a Gas 644 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas 647 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 650 The Electric Field of Point Charges The Electric Field of Continuous Charge Distributions Lines of Electric Field Motion in a Uniform Electric Field Electric Dipole in an Electric Field SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 24. GAUSS’ LAW 24.1 24.2 20. HEAT 628 The Electrostatic Force Coulomb’s Law The Superposition of Electrical Forces Charge Quantization and Charge Conservation Conductors and Insulators; Charging by Friction or by Induction SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 23.3 19. THE IDEAL GAS 602 The First Law of Thermodynamics 663 Heat Engines; The Carnot Engine 665 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 675 Entropy 677 24.3 24.4 24.5 Electric Flux Gauss’ Law Applications of Gauss’ Law Superposition of Electric Fields Conductors and Electric Fields SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 25. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND ENERGY 25.1 25.2 The Electrostatic Potential Calculation of the Potential from the Field ix Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page x PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] x CONTENTS 25.3 25.4 25.5 Potential in Conductors Calculation of the Field from the Potential Energy of Systems of Charges SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 26. CAPACITORS AND DIELECTRICS 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 Capacitance Capacitors in Combination Dielectrics Energy in Capacitors SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 27. CURRENTS AND OHM’S LAW 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 Electric Current Resistance and Ohm’s Law The Resistivity of Materials Resistances in Combination SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 28. DIRECT CURRENTS CIRCUITS 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6* 28.7* 28.8* Electromotive Force Sources of Electromotive Force Single-Loop Circuits Multi-Loop Circuits Energy in Circuits; Joule Heat Electrical Measurements The RC Circuit The Hazards of Electric Currents SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 29. MAGNETIC FORCE AND FIELD 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 The Magnetic Force The Magnetic Field Ampére’s Law Solenoids and Magnets The Biot-Savart Law SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 30. CHARGES AND CURRENTS IN MAGNETIC FIELDS 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5* Circular Motion in a Uniform Magnetic Field Force on a Wire Torque on a Loop Magnetism in Materials The Hall Effect SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 31. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6* Motional EMF Faraday’s Law Some Examples; Lenz’ Law Inductance Magnetic Energy The RL Circuit SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 32. ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUITS* Resistor Circuit 32.2 Capacitor Circuit 32.3 Inductor Circuit 32.4 * Freely Oscillating LC and RLC Circuits 32.5 * Series Circuits with Alternating EMF 32.6 Transformers 32.1 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS PART V WAVES AND OPTICS 33. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 33.1 33.2* 33.3 33.4 33.5 33.6* Induction of Magnetic Fields; Maxwell’s Equations The Electromagnetic Wave Pulse Plane Waves; Polarization The Generation of Electromagnetic Waves Energy of a Wave The Wave Equation SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page xi PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] CONTENTS 34. REFLECTION, REFRACTION, AND OPTICS 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6* Huygens’ Construction Reflection Refraction Spherical Mirrors Thin Lenses Optical Instruments SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 35. INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION 35.1 35.2* 35.3 35.4 35.5 35.6 Thin Films The Michelson Interferometer Interference from Two Slits Interference from Multiple Slits Diffraction by a Single Slit Diffraction by a Circular Aperture; Rayleigh’s Criterion SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 38. SPECTRAL LINES, BOHR’S THEORY, AND QUANTUM MECHANICS 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 Spectral Lines Spectral Series of Hydrogen The Nuclear Atom Bohr’s Theory Quantum Mechanics; The Schrödinger Equation SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 39. QUANTUM STRUCTURE OF ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND SOLIDS 39.1 39.2 39.3* 39.4 39.5 Principal, Orbital, and Magnetic Quantum Numbers; Spin The Exclusion Principle and the Structure of Atoms Energy Levels in Molecules Energy Bands in Solids Semiconductor Devices SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS PART VI RELATIVITY, QUANTA, AND PARTICLES 40. NUCLEI 40.1 36. THE THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 36.6 36.7* The Speed of Light; the Ether Einstein’s Principle of Relativity Time Dilation Length Contraction The Lorentz Transformations and the Combination of Velocities Relativistic Momentum and Energy Mass and Energy SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6* 40.7 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 37.6 Blackbody Radiation Energy Quanta Photons and the Photoelectric Effect The Compton Effect X Rays Wave vs. Particle SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS Isotopes The Strong Force and the Nuclear Binding Energy Radioactivity The Law of Radioactive Decay Fission Nuclear Bombs and Nuclear Reactors Fusion SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 41. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND COSMOLOGY 41.1 37. QUANTA OF LIGHT xi 41.2 41.3 41.4 41.5 41.6 The Tools of High-Energy Physics The Multitude of Particles Interactions and Conservation Laws Fields and Quanta Quarks Cosmology SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 4:40 PM Page xii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Books:GK-Jobs: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] xii CONTENTS APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: GREEK ALPHABET A-1 APPENDIX 2: MATHEMATICS REVIEW A-1 APPENDIX 6: THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI) A-21 A6.1 A6.2 A2.1 A2.2 A2.3 A2.4 A2.5 A2.6 A2.7 Symbols A-1 Powers and Roots A-1 Arithmetic in Scientific Notation A-2 Algebra A-3 Equations with Two Unknowns A-5 The Quadratic Formula A-5 Logarithms and the Exponential Function A-5 APPENDIX 3: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY REVIEW A-7 A3.1 A3.2 A3.3 A3.4 A3.5 Perimeters, Areas, and Volumes A-7 Angles A-7 The Trigonometric Functions A-8 The Trigonometric Identities A-9 The Laws of Cosines and Sines A-10 APPENDIX 4: CALCULUS REVIEW A-10 A4.1 A4.2 A4.3 A4.4 A4.5 A4.6 Derivatives A-10 Important Rules for Differentiation A-11 Integrals A-12 Important Rules for Integration A-15 The Taylor Series A-18 Some Approximations A-18 APPENDIX 5: PROPAGATING UNCERTAINTIES A-19 A6.3 Base Units A-21 Derived Units A-23 Prefixes A-23 APPENDIX 7: BEST VALUES OF FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS A-23 APPENDIX 8: CONVERSION FACTORS A-26 APPENDIX 9: THE PERIODIC TABLE AND CHEMICAL ELEMENTS A-31 APPENDIX 10: FORMULA SHEETS A-33 Chapters 1–21 A-33 Chapters 22–41 A-34 APPENDIX 11: ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS AND REVIEW PROBLEMS A-35 PHOTO CREDITS A-51 INDEX A-55 Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page xiii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Preface Our aim in Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Third Edition, is to present a modern view of classical mechanics and electromagnetism, including some optics and quantum physics. We also want to offer students a glimpse of the practical applications of physics in science, engineering, and everyday life. The book and its learning package emerged from a collaborative effort that began more than six years ago. We adapted the core of Ohanian’s earlier Physics (Second Edition, 1989) and combined it with relevant findings from recent physics education research on how students learn most effectively. The result is a text that presents a clear, uncluttered explication of the core concepts in physics, well suited to the needs of undergraduate engineering and science students. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f To p i c s The 41 chapters of the book cover the essential topics of introductory physics: mechanics of particles, rigid bodies, and fluids; oscillations, wave motion, heat and thermodynamics; electricity and magnetism; optics; special relativity; and atomic and subatomic physics. Our arrangement and treatment of...
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