**Unformatted text preview: **W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. • P
H
Y
S
I
C
S
F O R E N GIN E E R S A N D S CIE N TIS T S
THIRD EDITION
Volume One Hans C. Ohanian, John T. Markert Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page vi PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:28 PM Page i PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics for
Engineers and
Scientists
Third Edition Volume1 (Chapters 1–21)
MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY
O S C I L L AT I O N S , WAV E S , A N D F L U I D S
T E M P E R AT U R E , H E AT, A N D T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S W • W • NORTON & COMPANY B NEW YORK • LONDON Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:28 PM Page ii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page iii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics for
Engineers and
Scientists Third Edition
Volume1 (Chapters 1–21)
MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY
O S C I L L AT I O N S , WAV E S , A N D F L U I D S
T E M P E R AT U R E , H E AT, A N D T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S HANS C. OHANIAN,
UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT J O H N T. M A R K E R T,
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T E X A S AT A U S T I N W • W • NORTON & COMPANY B NEW YORK • LONDON Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page iv PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] To Susan Ohanian, writer, who gently tried to teach me some of her craft.—H.C.O.
To Frank D. Markert, a printer by trade; to Christiana Park, for her thirst for new knowledge; and to
Erin, Ryan, Sean, and Gwen, for their wonder and clarity.—J.T.M. Copyright © 2007 by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Third Edition
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ISBN 978-0-393-11101-9 (ebook) W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110
W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT
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W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton
and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education
division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The Nortons soon expanded their program beyond the Institute,
publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars
of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts— were firmly established. In the 1950s, the
Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred
and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton &
Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page v PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Brief Contents
Chapters 1–21 appear in Volume 1; Chapters 22–36 appear in
Volume 2; Chapters 37–41 appear in Volume 3. PREFACE xiii
OWNER’S MANUAL xxv
PRELUDE: THE WORLD OF PHYSICS xxxv PART IV ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
22. ELECTRIC FORCE AND ELECTRIC CHARGE
23. THE ELECTRIC FIELD
24. GAUSS’ LAW PART I MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY 1 25. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND ENERGY 1. SPACE, TIME, AND MASS 2 26. CAPACITORS AND DIELECTRICS 2. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 28 27. CURRENTS AND OHM’S LAW 3. VECTORS 69 28. DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUITS 4. MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS 94 29. MAGNETIC FORCE AND FIELD 5. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 130 30. CHARGES AND CURRENTS IN MAGNETIC FIELDS 6. FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S LAWS 173 31. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 7. WORK AND ENERGY 204 32. ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUITS 8. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 235
9. GRAVITATION 271
10. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 305
11. COLLISIONS 338
12. ROTATION OF A RIGID BODY 365
13. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 394
14. STATICS AND ELASTICITY 429 PART II OSCILLATIONS, WAVES, AND FLUIDS 466 PART V WAVES AND OPTICS
33. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
34. REFLECTION, REFRACTION, AND OPTICS
35. INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION PART VI RELATIVITY, QUANTA,
AND PARTICLES
36. THE THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY 15. OSCILLATIONS 468 37. QUANTA OF LIGHT 16. WAVES 507 38. SPECTRAL LINES, BOHR’S THEORY, AND QUANTUM
MECHANICS 17. SOUND 536
18. FLUID MECHANICS 565 PART III TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND
THERMODYNAMICS 600
19. THE IDEAL GAS 602 39. QUANTUM STRUCTURE OF ATOMS, MOLECULES,
AND SOLIDS
40. NUCLEI
41. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND COSMOLOGY
APPENDICES A-1 20. HEAT 628
21. THERMODYNAMICS 661 v Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page vi PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page vii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Table of Contents
Chapters 1–21 appear in Volume 1; Chapters 22–36 appear in
Volume 2; and Chapters 37–41 appear in Volume 3. PREFACE xiii 3.3 OWNER’S MANUAL xxv
3.4 PRELUDE: THE WORLD OF PHYSICS xxxv PART I MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY 1
1. SPACE, TIME, AND MASS 2
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6 Coordinates and Reference Frames 3
The Unit of Length 5
The Unit of Time 9
The Unit of Mass 11
Derived Units 13
Significant Figures; Consistency of Units and
Conversion of Units 14 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 20 2. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 28
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7* Average Speed 29
Average Velocity for Motion along a
Straight Line 32
Instantaneous Velocity 35
Acceleration 39
Motion with Constant Acceleration 42
The Acceleration of Free Fall 49
Integration of the Equations of Motion 54 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 57 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 87 4. MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS 94
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6 5. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 130
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6 3.2 The Displacement Vector and Other Vectors 70
Vector Addition and Subtraction 72 Newton’s First Law 131
Newton’s Second Law 133
The Combination of Forces 138
Weight; Contact Force and Normal Force 141
Newton’s Third Law 144
Motion with a Constant Force 151 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 159 6. FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S LAWS 173
6.1
6.3
6.4* 3.1 Components of Velocity and Acceleration 95
The Velocity and Acceleration Vectors 98
Motion with Constant Acceleration 102
The Motion of Projectiles 104
Uniform Circular Motion 112
The Relativity of Motion and the Addition
of Velocities 115 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 118 6.2 3. VECTORS 69 The Position Vector; Components of a
Vector 76
Vector Multiplication 81 Friction 174
Restoring Force of a Spring; Hooke’s Law 182
Force for Uniform Circular Motion 184
The Four Fundamental Forces 191 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 192 vii Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page viii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] viii CONTENTS 7. WORK AND ENERGY 204 12.2
12.3 7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4 Work 205
Work for a Variable Force 211
Kinetic Energy 214
Gravitational Potential Energy 218 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 224 12.4*
12.5 Rotation about a Fixed Axis 367
Motion with Constant Angular
Acceleration 374
Motion with Time-Dependent Angular
Acceleration 376
Kinetic Energy of Rotation; Moment of
Inertia 378 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 384 8. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 235
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4*
8.5 Potential Energy of a Conservative Force 236
The Curve of Potential Energy 244
Other Forms of Energy 248
Mass and Energy 251
Power 253 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 259 9. GRAVITATION 271
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 272
The Measurement of G 277
Circular Orbits 278
Elliptical Orbits; Kepler’s Laws 282
Energy in Orbital Motion 288 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 293 13. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 394
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4* Work, Energy, and Power in Rotational Motion;
Torque 395
The Equation of Rotational Motion 399
Angular Momentum and its Conservation 406
Torque and Angular Momentum as
Vectors 410 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 417 14. STATICS AND ELASTICITY 429
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4 Statics of Rigid Bodies 430
Examples of Static Equilibrium 433
Levers and Pulleys 441
Elasticity of Materials 445 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 450 10. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 305
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4 Momentum 306
Center of Mass 313
The Motion of the Center of Mass 323
Energy of a System of Particles 327 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 328 PART II OSCILLATIONS, WAVES,
AND FLUIDS 466
15. OSCILLATIONS 468
15.1 11. COLLISIONS 338 15.2
15.3 11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4* Impulsive Forces 339
Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 344
Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 348
Collisions in Two and Three Dimensions 351 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 354 15.4
15.5* Simple Harmonic Motion 469
The Simple Harmonic Oscillator 476
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 480
The Simple Pendulum 484
Damped Oscillations and Forced
Oscillations 488 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 494 16. WAVES 507
12. ROTATION OF A RIGID BODY 365
16.1
12.1 Motion of a Rigid Body 366 16.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Motion 508
Periodic Waves 509 Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page ix PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] CONTENTS 16.3
16.4 The Superposition of Waves 516
Standing Waves 520 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 524 21. THERMODYNAMICS 661
21.1
21.2
21.3 17. SOUND 536
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5* Sound Waves in Air 538
Intensity of Sound 540
The Speed of Sound; Standing Waves 543
The Doppler Effect 574
Diffraction 553 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 555 18. FLUID MECHANICS 565
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6 Density and Flow Velocity 567
Incompressible Steady Flow; Streamlines 569
Pressure 573
Pressure in a Static Fluid 575
Archimedes’ Principle 580
Fluid Dynamics; Bernoulli’s Equation 582 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 587 PART III TEMPERATURE, HEAT,
AND THERMODYNAMICS 600 21.4 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 681 PART IV ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
22. ELECTRIC FORCE AND ELECTRIC CHARGE
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5 19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4 The Ideal-Gas Law 603
The Temperature Scale 609
Kinetic Pressure 613
The Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas 616 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 619 23. THE ELECTRIC FIELD
23.1
23.2 23.4
23.5 20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6* Heat as a Form of Energy Transfer 629
Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 633
Thermal Conduction 638
Changes of State 642
The Specific Heat of a Gas 644
Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas 647 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 650 The Electric Field of Point Charges
The Electric Field of Continuous Charge
Distributions
Lines of Electric Field
Motion in a Uniform Electric Field
Electric Dipole in an Electric Field SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 24. GAUSS’ LAW
24.1
24.2 20. HEAT 628 The Electrostatic Force
Coulomb’s Law
The Superposition of Electrical Forces
Charge Quantization and Charge
Conservation
Conductors and Insulators; Charging by
Friction or by Induction SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 23.3 19. THE IDEAL GAS 602 The First Law of Thermodynamics 663
Heat Engines; The Carnot Engine 665
The Second Law of Thermodynamics 675
Entropy 677 24.3
24.4
24.5 Electric Flux
Gauss’ Law
Applications of Gauss’ Law
Superposition of Electric Fields
Conductors and Electric Fields SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 25. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND ENERGY
25.1
25.2 The Electrostatic Potential
Calculation of the Potential from the Field ix Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page x PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] x CONTENTS 25.3
25.4
25.5 Potential in Conductors
Calculation of the Field from the
Potential
Energy of Systems of Charges SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 26. CAPACITORS AND DIELECTRICS
26.1
26.2
26.3
26.4 Capacitance
Capacitors in Combination
Dielectrics
Energy in Capacitors SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 27. CURRENTS AND OHM’S LAW
27.1
27.2
27.3
27.4 Electric Current
Resistance and Ohm’s Law
The Resistivity of Materials
Resistances in Combination SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 28. DIRECT CURRENTS CIRCUITS
28.1
28.2
28.3
28.4
28.5
28.6*
28.7*
28.8* Electromotive Force
Sources of Electromotive Force
Single-Loop Circuits
Multi-Loop Circuits
Energy in Circuits; Joule Heat
Electrical Measurements
The RC Circuit
The Hazards of Electric
Currents SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 29. MAGNETIC FORCE AND FIELD
29.1
29.2
29.3
29.4
29.5 The Magnetic Force
The Magnetic Field
Ampére’s Law
Solenoids and Magnets
The Biot-Savart Law SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 30. CHARGES AND CURRENTS IN MAGNETIC
FIELDS
30.1
30.2
30.3
30.4
30.5* Circular Motion in a Uniform Magnetic
Field
Force on a Wire
Torque on a Loop
Magnetism in Materials
The Hall Effect SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 31. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
31.1
31.2
31.3
31.4
31.5
31.6* Motional EMF
Faraday’s Law
Some Examples; Lenz’ Law
Inductance
Magnetic Energy
The RL Circuit SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 32. ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUITS* Resistor Circuit
32.2 Capacitor Circuit
32.3 Inductor Circuit
32.4 * Freely Oscillating LC and RLC Circuits
32.5 * Series Circuits with Alternating EMF
32.6 Transformers
32.1 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS PART V WAVES AND OPTICS
33. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
33.1
33.2*
33.3
33.4
33.5
33.6* Induction of Magnetic Fields; Maxwell’s
Equations
The Electromagnetic Wave Pulse
Plane Waves; Polarization
The Generation of Electromagnetic Waves
Energy of a Wave
The Wave Equation SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page xi PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] CONTENTS 34. REFLECTION, REFRACTION, AND OPTICS
34.1
34.2
34.3
34.4
34.5
34.6* Huygens’ Construction
Reflection
Refraction
Spherical Mirrors
Thin Lenses
Optical Instruments SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 35. INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION
35.1
35.2*
35.3
35.4
35.5
35.6 Thin Films
The Michelson Interferometer
Interference from Two Slits
Interference from Multiple Slits
Diffraction by a Single Slit
Diffraction by a Circular Aperture; Rayleigh’s
Criterion SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 38. SPECTRAL LINES, BOHR’S THEORY, AND QUANTUM
MECHANICS
38.1
38.2
38.3
38.4
38.5 Spectral Lines
Spectral Series of Hydrogen
The Nuclear Atom
Bohr’s Theory
Quantum Mechanics; The Schrödinger
Equation SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 39. QUANTUM STRUCTURE OF ATOMS, MOLECULES,
AND SOLIDS
39.1
39.2
39.3*
39.4
39.5 Principal, Orbital, and Magnetic Quantum
Numbers; Spin
The Exclusion Principle and the Structure of
Atoms
Energy Levels in Molecules
Energy Bands in Solids
Semiconductor Devices SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS PART VI RELATIVITY, QUANTA,
AND PARTICLES 40. NUCLEI
40.1 36. THE THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY
36.1
36.2
36.3
36.4
36.5
36.6
36.7* The Speed of Light; the Ether
Einstein’s Principle of Relativity
Time Dilation
Length Contraction
The Lorentz Transformations and the
Combination of Velocities
Relativistic Momentum and Energy
Mass and Energy SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 40.2
40.3
40.4
40.5
40.6*
40.7 37.1
37.2
37.3
37.4
37.5
37.6 Blackbody Radiation
Energy Quanta
Photons and the Photoelectric Effect
The Compton Effect
X Rays
Wave vs. Particle SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS Isotopes
The Strong Force and the Nuclear Binding
Energy
Radioactivity
The Law of Radioactive Decay
Fission
Nuclear Bombs and Nuclear Reactors
Fusion SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 41. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND COSMOLOGY
41.1 37. QUANTA OF LIGHT xi 41.2
41.3
41.4
41.5
41.6 The Tools of High-Energy Physics
The Multitude of Particles
Interactions and Conservation Laws
Fields and Quanta
Quarks
Cosmology SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW
PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 4:40 PM Page xii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Books:GK-Jobs: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] xii CONTENTS APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1: GREEK ALPHABET A-1 APPENDIX 2: MATHEMATICS REVIEW A-1 APPENDIX 6: THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS
(SI) A-21
A6.1
A6.2 A2.1
A2.2
A2.3
A2.4
A2.5
A2.6
A2.7 Symbols A-1
Powers and Roots A-1
Arithmetic in Scientific Notation A-2
Algebra A-3
Equations with Two Unknowns A-5
The Quadratic Formula A-5
Logarithms and the Exponential Function A-5 APPENDIX 3: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
REVIEW A-7
A3.1
A3.2
A3.3
A3.4
A3.5 Perimeters, Areas, and Volumes A-7
Angles A-7
The Trigonometric Functions A-8
The Trigonometric Identities A-9
The Laws of Cosines and Sines A-10 APPENDIX 4: CALCULUS REVIEW A-10
A4.1
A4.2
A4.3
A4.4
A4.5
A4.6 Derivatives A-10
Important Rules for Differentiation A-11
Integrals A-12
Important Rules for Integration A-15
The Taylor Series A-18
Some Approximations A-18 APPENDIX 5: PROPAGATING UNCERTAINTIES A-19 A6.3 Base Units A-21
Derived Units A-23
Prefixes A-23 APPENDIX 7: BEST VALUES OF FUNDAMENTAL
CONSTANTS A-23 APPENDIX 8: CONVERSION FACTORS A-26 APPENDIX 9: THE PERIODIC TABLE AND CHEMICAL
ELEMENTS A-31 APPENDIX 10: FORMULA SHEETS A-33 Chapters 1–21 A-33
Chapters 22–41 A-34
APPENDIX 11: ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED
PROBLEMS AND REVIEW PROBLEMS A-35 PHOTO CREDITS A-51 INDEX A-55 Physics_FM.qxd 7/10/06 12:29 PM Page xiii PMAC-291 PMAC-291:Desktop Folder:GK023: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Preface Our aim in Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Third Edition, is to present a modern
view of classical mechanics and electromagnetism, including some optics and quantum
physics. We also want to offer students a glimpse of the practical applications of physics
in science, engineering, and everyday life.
The book and its learning package emerged from a collaborative effort that began
more than six years ago. We adapted the core of Ohanian’s earlier Physics (Second
Edition, 1989) and combined it with relevant findings from recent physics education
research on how students learn most effectively. The result is a text that presents a
clear, uncluttered explication of the core concepts in physics, well suited to the needs
of undergraduate engineering and science students. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f To p i c s
The 41 chapters of the book cover the essential topics of introductory physics: mechanics of particles, rigid bodies, and fluids; oscillations, wave motion, heat and thermodynamics; electricity and magnetism; optics; special relativity; and atomic and subatomic
physics.
Our arrangement and treatment of...

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